Examining the Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Potential Human Papillomavirus-associated Cancers

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA.
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.89). 11/2008; 113(10 Suppl):2910-8. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23742
Source: PubMed


This study examined the association between county-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and the incidence rate of human papillomavirus(HPV)-associated cancers, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.
The authors collected data from cancer registries for site-specific invasive cancer diagnoses between 1998 and 2003, inclusive, among adults aged >20 years at the time of diagnosis. County-level variables that included education, income, and poverty status were used as factors for socioeconomic status. Measures of rural-urban status, the percentage of the population that currently smoked, and the percentage of women who reported having ever had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test were also studied.
Lower education and higher poverty were found to be associated with increased penile, cervical, and vaginal invasive cancer incidence rates. Higher education was associated with increased incidence of vulvar cancer, male and female anal cancer, and male and female oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. Race was an independent predictor of the development of these potentially HPV-associated cancers.
These findings illustrate the association between SES variables and the development of HPV-associated cancers. The findings also highlight the importance of considering SES factors when developing policies to increase access to medical care and reduce cancer disparities in the United States.

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Available from: Nikki A Hawkins, Oct 06, 2014
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    • "limited access to needed resources to mitigate the violence and address the health needs of victims (Breiding et al. 2008b; Cho 2012; Powers and Kaukinen 2012; Vest et al. 2002). They also have dramatically higher cervical cancer morbidity and mortality (Benard et al. 2008; US Cancer Statistics Working Group 2010). However, the literature has not explored the possibility that higher exposure and severity of IPValong with prolonged duration of IPVamong low-income, Black and Hispanic women may explain why these women suffer from dramatically higher morbidity and mortality rates of cervical cancer. "
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    • "HPV vaccination rates are low among socioeconomic disadvantaged groups, and in states and regions with low cervical cancer screening participation and greater cervical cancer morbidity and mortality [8]. Uninsured and low-income women suffer disproportionate cervical cancer morbidity, mortality and late-stage diagnosis [9] [10]. Provider recommendation is a key facilitator to vaccination among low-income, medically underserved populations [11] [12]. "
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    • "Over the past decades, a steady decrease in the cervical cancer incidence and mortality has been reported [2]. Still, cervical cancer disproportionately affects poor minority women [3]; along with increased incidence of cervical cancer among female population groups with lower education and income, and higher poverty [4,5], substantial disparities in stage at diagnosis and mortality also remain by race/ethnicity [3-8]. "
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