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Available from: David A Pegues, Nov 10, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Preventable healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occur in US hospitals. Preventing these infections is a national priority, with initiatives led by healthcare organizations, professional associations, government and accrediting agencies, legislators, regulators, payers, and consumer advocacy groups. To assist acute care hospitals in focusing and prioritizing efforts to implement evidence-based practices for prevention of HAIs, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and the Infectious Diseases Society of America Standards and Practice Guidelines Committee appointed a task force to create a concise compendium of recommendations for the prevention of common HAIs. This compendium is implementation focused and differs from most previously published guidelines in that it highlights a set of basic HAI prevention strategies plus special approaches for use in locations and/or populations within the hospital when infections are not controlled by use of basic practices, recommends that accountability for implementing infection prevention practices be assigned to specific groups and individuals, and includes proposed performance measures for internal quality improvement efforts.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 10/2008; 29 Suppl 1(8):S12-21. DOI:10.1086/591060 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this randomized prospective study was to determine whether a urinary catheter is necessary for all patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia. Consecutive patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia were randomized to treatment with or without insertion of an indwelling urinary catheter. All patients received spinal anesthesia with 15 to 30 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine. The catheter group was subjected to a standard postoperative protocol, with removal of the indwelling catheter within forty-eight hours postoperatively. The experimental group was monitored for urinary retention and, if necessary, had straight catheterization up to two times prior to the placement of an indwelling catheter. Two hundred patients were included in the study. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the prevalence of urinary retention, the prevalence of urinary tract infection, or the length of stay. Nine patients in the no-catheter group and three patients in the catheter group (following removal of the catheter) required straight catheterization because of urinary retention. Three patients in the catheter group and no patient in the no-catheter group had development of urinary tract infection. Patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia appear to be at low risk for urinary retention. Thus, a routine indwelling catheter is not required for such patients. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 08/2013; 95(16):1498-503. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.K.01671 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the rates of device-associated healthcare-associated infections (DA-HAI), microbiological profile, bacterial resistance, length of stay (LOS), excess mortality and hand hygiene compliance in one intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital member of the International Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in Beirut, Lebanon. An open label, prospective cohort, active DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted on adults admitted to a tertiary-care ICU in Lebanon from November 2007 to March 2010. The protocol and methodology implemented were developed by INICC. Data collection was performed in the participating ICUs. Data uploading and analyses were conducted at INICC headquarters on proprietary software. DA-HAI rates were recorded by applying the definitions of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We analyzed the DA-HAI, mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates, microorganism profile, excess LOS, excess mortality, and hand hygiene compliance. A total of 666 patients hospitalized for 5,506 days acquired 65 DA-HAIs, an overall rate of 9.8% [(95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6-12.3], and 11.8 (95% CI 9.1-15.0) DA-HAIs per 1000 ICU-days. The CLA-BSI rate was 5.2 (95% CI 2.8-8.7) per 1000 catheter-days; the VAP rate was 8.1 (95% CI 5.5-11.7) per 1000 ventilator-days; and the CAUTI rate was 4.1 (95% CI 2.6-6.2) per 1000 catheter-days. LOS of patients was 7.3 days for those without DA-HAI, 13.8 days for those with CLA-BSI, 18.8 days for those with VAP. Excess mortality was 40.9% [relative risk (RR) 3.14; P 0.004] for CLA-BSI. Mortality of VAP and CAUTI was not significantly different from patients without DA-HAI. Escherichia coli was the most common isolated microorganism. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 84.9% (95% CI 82.3-87.3). DA-HAI rates, bacterial resistance, LOS and mortality were moderately high, below INICC overall data and above CDC-NHSN data. Infection control programs including surveillance and antibiotic policies are essential and continue to be a priority in Lebanon.
    Journal of global infectious diseases 03/2012; 4(1):15-21. DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.93755