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Available from: David A Pegues, Nov 10, 2014
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    • "Johnson et al., in their systematic review also reported similar results.[40] Further, although several studies report reduced incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, use of anti-infective catheters has not been demonstrably associated with prevention of CAUTI, reduced incidence of bacteremia resulting out of urosepsis or decreased mortality rates therefrom, and hence their routine use in CCUs cannot at present be recommended.[41] However, use of anti-infective urinary catheters could be considered in patients deemed to be at high risk for development of CAUTI or if all other preventive measures fail to bring down CAUTI rates in a CCU. "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of indwelling catheters in the Critical Care Units (CCUs) has a major role in determining the incidence and the morbidity as well as mortality from hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Instituting evidence-based protocols can significantly reduce both the prevalence of indwelling catheterization as well as the incidence of hospital-acquired UTIs. The prevalence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in the CCUs is directly linked to the widespread use of indwelling catheters in these settings. CAUTIs result in significant cost escalation for individual hospitals as well as the healthcare system as a whole. A UTI is an inflammatory response to colonization of the urinary tract, most commonly by bacteria or fungi. A UTI should be differentiated from the mere detection of bacteria in the urinary tract. This condition, referred to as asymptomatic bacteriuria, is common and does not require treatment, especially in the patient with an indwelling urinary catheter. A CAUTI occurs when a patient with an indwelling urinary catheter develops 2 or more signs or symptoms of a UTI such as hematuria, fever, suprapubic or flank pain, change in urine character, and altered mental status. CAUTI is classified as a complicated UTI. The current review highlights the important management issues in critical care patients having CAUTI. We performed a MEDLINE search using combinations of keywords such as urinary tract infection, critical care unit and indwelling urinary catheter. We reviewed the relevant publications with regard to CAUTI in patients in CCU.
    Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine 03/2013; 17(6):370-374. DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.123451
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    • "Previous research has shown that inexperienced interns are responsible for most iatrogenic complications [6]. The majority of complications can be prevented using the proper UC technique, and for patient safety, only well-trained personnel are recommended to perform UC [7]. However, interns believe they receive inadequate training [6] and there is currently no standard for adequate training [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Inexperienced interns are responsible for most iatrogenic complications after urethral catheterization (UC). Although training on simulators is common, little is known about the transfer of learned skills to real clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of UC simulated skills training on performance on real patients and to examine whether watching a video of the procedure immediately before assessment enhanced clinical performance. This was an experimental study of the effect of a UC simulation-based skills course on medical students' short-term (after one week) and long-term (after six weeks) performance. The additional effect of video instruction before performance testing on real patients was studied in a randomized trial. Sixty-four students participated in the study, which was preceded by a pilot study investigating the validity aspects of a UC assessment form. The pilot study demonstrated sufficient inter-rater reliability, intra-class correlation coefficient 0.86, and a significant ability to discriminate between trainee performances when using the assessment form, p= 0.001. In the main study, more than 90% of students demonstrated an acceptable performance or better when tested on real patients. There was no significant difference in the total score between the one-week and the six-week groups when tested on real patients and no significant difference between the video and the control groups. Medical students demonstrated good transfer of UC skills learned in the skills lab to real clinical situations up to six weeks after training. Simulated UC training should be the standard for all medical school curricula to reduce avoidable complications. However, this study did not demonstrate that an instructional video, as a supplement to simulated skills training, improved clinical UC performance. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN:ISRCTN90745002.
    BMC Medical Education 02/2013; 13(1):29. DOI:10.1186/1472-6920-13-29 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    • "They have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, hospital costs, and length of the hospital stay [2]. The prevalence of CAUTIs in the catheterized patients in acute care settings (catheter used for <7 days) is 3%-7%, in patients who require a urinary catheter for >7 days, it is up to 25% and it approaches 100% after 30 days [3] [4]. About 17% of the healthcare associated bacteraemias are from urinary sources, with an associated mortality of approximately 10% [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) contribute 30%-40% of all the nosocomial infections and they are associated with substantially increased institutional death rates. A multimodal supervision program which incorporates training of the staff with respect to infection control measures can be effective in reducing the CAUTIs in hospitals. To assess the impact of a multimodal UTI supervision program on the CAUTI rates over a year, from January 2009 to December 2009, in a tertiary care hospital in India. A 215 bedded tertiary care private hospital. The CAUTI rates were analyzed for the first 6 months (January 2009-June 2009). A UTI supervision program was instituted in the month of July 2009, which included training with respect to the standard protocols for the sample collection and diagnosis, the bundle components of the urinary catheter checklist and hand hygiene practices. The impact was assessed as per the CAUTI rates in the subsequent months. The average CAUTI rate was reduced by 47.1% (from 10.6 to 5.6) after the introduction of the supervision program. This study presented the mean age of the patients with CAUTIs as 54.5 years and it showed an approximately equal contribution of both the sexes (52.94% in males and 47.05% in females). The impact analysis of the supervision program showed a reduction of 8.7% (from 23 days to 21 days) during the average duration of the catheterization. The adherence to the components of the urinary catheter check list was increased by 44.4% (p=0.069) and the hand hygiene compliance was increased by 56.4% (p=0.004) respectively after the interventions. Components like bladder irrigation and practising perineal cleaning were found to show no effect on the CAUTI rates. The most common labour and cost effective infection control measures as revealed by the supervision programme were adherence to the urinary catheter checklist components (indication for catheter insertion and change, asepsis maintenance during and after the catheter insertion and avoiding urine reflux) and hand hygiene practices, whereas bladder irrigation and practising perineal cleaning thrice a day were unnecessary measures.
    Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 10/2012; 6(8):1372-6. DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2012/4229.2362 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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