Regional differences in colorectal cancer incidence, stage, and subsite among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1999-2004.
ABSTRACT Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), but misclassification of race causes underestimates of disease burden.
The authors compared regional differences in CRC incidence, stage at diagnosis, and anatomic distribution between AI/ANs and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). To reduce misclassification, data from the National Program of Cancer Registries; the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; and the Indian Health Service (IHS) were linked. The analysis was limited to the 56% of AI/AN who live in IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Areas.
From 1999 to 2004, the overall incidence rate (per 100,000 persons per year) of CRC was 9% lower in the AI/AN population (46.3) than in the NHW population (50.8). However, AI/AN CRC incidence rates varied nearly 5-fold regionally, from 21 in the Southwest to 102.6 in Alaska. Compared with NHW rates, AI/AN rates were significantly higher in Alaska (rate ratio [RR], 2.03), the Northern Plains (RR, 1.39), and the Southern Plains (RR, 1.16) but were lower in the Pacific Coast (RR, 0.80), the East (RR, 0.65), and the Southwest (RR, 0.45). AI/ANs were diagnosed more often with advanced CRC than with localized CRC (RR, 1.92) compared with NHWs (RR, 1.48). Females more often had proximal CRC among both the AI/AN population (females, 40.1%; males, 33.5%) and the NHW population (females, 50.1%; males, 40.3%), although AI/ANs had a higher proportion of distal cancers overall.
CRC incidence rates in AI/AN populations varied dramatically between regions. Efforts are needed to make CRC screening a priority, overcome barriers to endoscopic screening, and to engage AI/AN communities in culturally appropriate ways to participate in prevention and early detection programs.
Article: Australia's national bowel cancer screening program: does it work for indigenous Australians?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population.This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating the already widening disparities in cancer outcomes that exist among Indigenous Australians. Modifications to the program are recommended to facilitate access and participation by Indigenous and other minority populations. Further research is also needed to understand the needs and social and cultural sensitivities of these groups around cancer screening and inform alternative approaches to bowel cancer screening.BMC Public Health 01/2010; 10:373. · 2.00 Impact Factor
Article: Screening prevalence and incidence of colorectal cancer among American Indian/Alaskan natives in the Indian Health Service.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and incidence among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) are few. Our aim was to determine CRC screening prevalence and to calculate CRC incidence among AI/AN receiving care within the Indian Health Service (IHS). A retrospective cohort study of AI/AN who utilized IHS from 1996 to 2004. AI/AN who were average-risk for CRC and received primary care within IHS were identified by searching the IHS Resource Patient Management System for selected ICD-9/CPT codes (n = 142,051). CRC screening prevalence was calculated and predictors of screening were determined for this group. CRC incidence rates were ascertained for the entire AI/AN population ages 50-80 who received IHS medical care between 1996 and 2004 (n = 283,717). CRC screening was performed in 4.0% of average-risk AI/AN. CRC screening was more common among women than men (RR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.7) and among AI/AN living in the Alaska region compared to the Pacific Coast region (RR = 2.5, 95% CI 2.2-2.8) while patients living in the Northern Plains (RR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.4) were less likely to have been screened. CRC screening was less common among patients with a greater number of primary care visits. The age-adjusted CRC incidence among AI/AN ages 50-80 was 227 cancers per 100,000 person-years. CRC was common among AI/AN receiving medical care within IHS. However, CRC screening prevalence was far lower than has been reported for the U.S. population.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2011; 56(7):2104-13. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) men experience lower incidence of prostate cancer than other race/ethnic populations in the US, but racial misclassification of AI/AN men threatens the validity of these estimates. To the authors' knowledge, little is known concerning prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in AI/AN men. The authors linked cancer registry data with Indian Health Service enrollment records to improve race classification. Analyses comparing cancer incidence rates and stage at diagnosis for AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) men for 6 geographic regions focused on counties known to have less race misclassification. The authors also used Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System data to characterize PSA testing in AI/AN men. Prostate cancer incidence rates were generally lower in AI/AN than in NHW men for all regions combined (rate ratio of 0.68). However, regional variation was noted among AI/AN men, with incidence rates (per 100,000 population) ranging from 65.7 in the Southwest to 174.5 on the Northern Plains. The rate of distant stage disease was somewhat higher among AI/AN (7.8) than NHW (6.2) men. Nationally, AI/AN men were less likely than NHW men to have undergone recent PSA testing (48.4% vs 58.0%), with prominent regional variation in screening rates noted. Prostate cancer incidence rates and the proportion of men with recent PSA testing were lower for AI/AN men than for NHW men. However, incident rates and rate of distant stage varied by region more for AI/AN than for NHW. Further research is needed among AI/AN men to evaluate strategies for better understanding the causes of the regional variation in prostate cancer incidence.Cancer 09/2008; 113(5 Suppl):1203-12. · 4.77 Impact Factor