Believing in order to understand: Hahnemann's hierarchisation of values
Department of the History of Medicine, University of Munich, Germany.Homeopathy: the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy (Impact Factor: 0.76). 07/2008; 97(3):156-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2008.05.001
During the last 200 years, the social, scientific, and religious framework in which homeopathy is taught and practiced has changed tremendously. Various different forms of homeopathy have been advocated. To avoid being misled by the prevailing pluralism as a standard of reference for assessing new concepts, Hahnemann's original ideas and attitude toward medicine, philosophy, and ethics are discussed. Hahnemann's hierarchisation of values appears to consist primarily in striving for a world view in which he could conceive of himself as a spiritual and moral being, secondly in a yearning for scientific advancement, and thirdly in his need to earn a living. Homeopaths are challenged to match this hierarchisation and be aware that homeopathy comprises dimensions other than just science and economics.
Conference Paper: Micro fabricated power inductors on silicon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to present a new design for an integrated power inductor on silicon. After a choice between different topologies already known, we present the dimensioning of this component. The inductor is designed to work in a DC/DC synchronous buck converter for a portable application (P=1 W, Vout=1.5 V, Vin=3.3 V, F=500 kHz). To reach a high integration level, the manufacturing technologies used for the inductor fabrication should be compatible with the active part implementation of the converter on the same silicon chip. Thus, only one process can be used for iron and copper deposit: electro-deposition. That is why only conductive materials can be used. The chosen inductor topology is based on the spiral structure which consists of copper windings sandwiched between two NiFe layers shielding the magnetic flux induced from the inductor windings. Considering the operating frequency and the NiFe characteristics (resistivity and permeability), eddy currents appear in the magnetic material. New design is developed to limit these eddy currents in the magnetic material by laminating the NiFe. To perform the chosen inductor topology, simulations are presented, using a 3D finite element analysis method (FEA). Simulations show that the inductor has the right value calculated i.e. 1.2 μH. The induction repartition in the laminated material is the sign of eddy currents reduction. These results combination shows the validity of our choice for this inductor topology.Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2002. pesc 02. 2002 IEEE 33rd Annual; 02/2002
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ABSTRACT: The question of whether homeopathy is a science is currently discussed almost exclusively against the background of the modern concept of natural science. This approach, however, fails to notice that homeopathy-in terms of history of science-rests on different roots that can essentially be traced back to two most influential traditions of science: on the one hand, principles and notions of Aristotelism which determined 2,000 years of Western history of science and, on the other hand, the modern concept of natural science that has been dominating the history of medicine for less than 200 years. While Aristotle's "science of the living" still included ontologic and teleologic dimensions for the sake of comprehending nature in a uniform way, the interest of modern natural science was reduced to functional and causal explanations of all phenomena for the purpose of commanding nature. In order to prevent further ecological catastrophes as well as to regain lost dimensions of our lives, the one-sidedness and theory-loadedness of our modern natural-scientific view of life should henceforth be counterbalanced by lifeworld-practical Aristotelic categories. In this way, the ground would be ready to conceive the scientific character of homeopathy-in a broader, Aristotelian sense.Bioethics Quarterly 02/2009; 30(2):83-97. DOI:10.1007/s10912-009-9080-x
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ABSTRACT: The number of notions of health is not infinite. In the history of medicine we can only find a number of different conceptions or paradigmatic ideas of health, in a variety of references and combinations. Health was seen as: 1. harmonious balance between principles or entities, 2. result of a struggle against opposing forces, 3. continuous dialectical process, 4. hierarchy of components or functions, 5. potential to perform and to develop, 6. transcendence towards higher levels of being, 7. result of conscious autonomous action, 8. optimal causal functioning, or 9. public task and responsibility. Hahnemann's view of health, as reflected in his writings, utilized virtually all of these elements. They reappear for instance as: 1. harmonious tuning of the life force, 2. defeat of pathogenetic influences, 3. admittance of aggravations, 4. autocracy of the spirit-like life principle, 5. reference to a higher goal of human existence, 6. perfecting character of medical service, 7. concern about dietetics and life style, 8. utilization of causality and natural science, and 9. appealing to governmental provisions and medical police. These paradigms have been repeatedly recombined and applied. The theory of medicine is the attempt to analyze, adjust, and develop concepts that meet the demand of contemporary medical practice. Medical theory lies between the fields of observable facts and metaphysical convictions. Distinguishing the levels of practice, theory, and metaphysics could allow the open discussion of theoretical issues, such as the concept of health or disease, without raising purely theoretical objections to well-established practice.Homeopathy: the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 07/2010; 99(3):215-20. DOI:10.1016/j.homp.2010.05.004 · 0.76 Impact Factor
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