Apigenin causes G(2)/M arrest associated with the modulation of p21(Cip1) and Cdc2 and activates p53-dependent apoptosis pathway in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells.
ABSTRACT We studied the effects of apigenin on the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells and explored the mechanisms underlying these effects. We first investigated the antiproliferative effects in SK-BR-3 cells exposed to between 1 and 100 microM apigenin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Apigenin significantly inhibited cell proliferation at concentrations over 50 microM, regardless of exposure time (P<.05), and resulted in significant cell cycle arrest in the G(2)/M phase after 48 h of treatment at high concentrations (50 and 100 microM; P<.05). To investigate the regulatory proteins of cell cycle arrest affected by apigenin, we treated cells with 50 and 100 microM apigenin for 72 h. Apigenin caused a slight decrease in cyclin D and cyclin E expression, with no change in CDK2 and CDK4. In addition, the apigenin-induced accumulation of the cell population in the G(2)/M phase resulted in a decrease in CDK1 together with cyclin A and cyclin B. In an additional study, apigenin also increased the accumulation of p53 and further enhanced the level of p21(Cip1), with no change in p27(Kip1). The expression of Bax and cytochrome c of p53 downstream target was increased markedly at high concentration treatment over 50 microM apigenin. Based on our findings, the mechanism by which apigenin causes cell cycle arrest via the regulation of CDK1 and p21(Cip1) and induction of apoptosis seems to be involved in the p53-dependent pathway.
Article: Bcl-2 inhibitor and apigenin worked synergistically in human malignant neuroblastoma cell lines and increased apoptosis with activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in infants and young children. Current treatments are not always effective and new therapies are needed. We examined efficacy of combination of the small molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 (HA) and the dietary isoflavonoid apigenin (APG) in human malignant neuroblastoma cells. Dose-response studies indicated that treatment with HA and APG for 24 h synergistically reduced cell viability in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ, SH-SY5Y, and IMR32 cells. For further studies, we selected SK-N-DZ cells that showed the highest sensitivity following treatment with 2.5 microM HA, 100 microM APG, or combination (2.5 microM HA+100 microM APG). Wright staining showed increase in morphological features of apoptosis. Cell cycle distribution and Annexin V assay showed that combination therapy caused more apoptosis than either treatment alone. Western blotting revealed that combination therapy downregulated angiogenic factors and also induced extrinsic pathway of apoptosis with activation of caspase-8 for Bid cleavage to tBid. Alterations in Bax and Bcl-2 levels resulted in an increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio to activate intrinsic pathway of apoptosis with mitochondrial release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and activation of proteases. Increases in calpain and caspase-3 activities generated 145 kD spectrin break down product (SBDP) and 120 kD SBDP, respectively. Results showed that combination of HA and APG could be used for downregulation of angiogenic factors and activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in malignant neuroblastoma cells.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2009; 388(4):705-10. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is great interest in pathway-based methods for genomics data analysis in the research community. Although machine learning methods, such as random forests, have been developed to correlate survival outcomes with a set of genes, no study has assessed the abilities of these methods in incorporating pathway information for analyzing microarray data. In general, genes that are identified without incorporating biological knowledge are more difficult to interpret. Correlating pathway-based gene expression with survival outcomes may lead to biologically more meaningful prognosis biomarkers. Thus, a comprehensive study on how these methods perform in a pathway-based setting is warranted. In this article, we describe a pathway-based method using random forests to correlate gene expression data with survival outcomes and introduce a novel bivariate node-splitting random survival forests. The proposed method allows researchers to identify important pathways for predicting patient prognosis and time to disease progression, and discover important genes within those pathways. We compared different implementations of random forests with different split criteria and found that bivariate node-splitting random survival forests with log-rank test is among the best. We also performed simulation studies that showed random forests outperforms several other machine learning algorithms and has comparable results with a newly developed component-wise Cox boosting model. Thus, pathway-based survival analysis using machine learning tools represents a promising approach in dissecting pathways and for generating new biological hypothesis from microarray studies. R package Pwayrfsurvival is available from URL: http://www.duke.edu/~hp44/pwayrfsurvival.htm. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.Bioinformatics 11/2009; 26(2):250-8. · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Natural-food-based compounds show substantial promise for prevention and biotherapy of cancers including leukemia. In general, their mechanism of action remains unclear, hampering rational use of these compounds. Herein we show that the common dietary flavonoid apigenin has anticancer activity, but also may decrease chemotherapy sensitivity, depending on the cell type. We analyzed the molecular consequences of apigenin treatment in two types of leukemia, the myeloid and erythroid subtypes. Apigenin blocked proliferation in both lineages through cell-cycle arrest in G(2)/M phase for myeloid HL60 and G(0)/G(1) phase for erythroid TF1 cells. In both cell lines the JAK/STAT pathway was one of major targets of apigenin. Apigenin inhibited PI3K/PKB pathway in HL60 and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. In contrast, no apoptosis was detected in TF1 cells, but initiation of autophagy was observed. The block in cell cycle and induction of autophagy observed in this erythroleukemia cell line resulted in a reduced susceptibility toward the commonly used therapeutic agent vincristine. Thus, this study shows that although apigenin is a potential chemopreventive agent due to the induction of leukemia cell-cycle arrest, caution in dietary intake of apigenin should be taken during disease as it potentially interferes with cancer treatment.Cell Death & Disease 01/2010; 1:e19. · 5.33 Impact Factor