Orexin-B-like immunoreactivity localized in both luteinizing hormone- and thyroid-stimulating hormone-containing cells in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) pituitary.
ABSTRACT Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to examine orexin-like immunoreactivities in the pituitary of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Rabbit anti-orexin-A serum and mouse anti-orexin-B monoclonal antibodies were used as primary antibodies. Orexin-B immunoreactive cells corresponded to luteinizing hormone (LH)- or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-containing cells, and all LH- and TSH-containing cells were immunoreactive for orexin-B. However, we found no orexin-A immunoreactive cells in the pituitary. In the Nile tilapia, an orexin-B-like substance may be secreted from LH- or TSH-containing cells and may regulate pituitary function, rather than the orexin-A-like substance in the pituitaries of Japanese seaperch and medaka.
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ABSTRACT: Although recently discovered, orexins have been rapidly established as important neuropeptides in regulating physiological processes including food intake, sleep/wake cycles and reproduction through binding to two class B G protein-coupled receptors (OX1R and OX2R). To date, a handful of sequences for orexins and their receptors ranging from fish to mammalian species have been identified, allowing a glimpse into their evolution. Structurally, the genetic and molecular organization of the peptides and receptors amongst vertebrates are highly similar, underlining the strong evolutionary pressure that has been exerted to preserve structure and ultimately function. Furthermore, the absence of invertebrate orexin-like sequences suggests early vertebrates as the origin from which orexins evolved. With respect to the receptors, OX2R is probably evolutionary more ancient whilst OX1R is specific to mammalian species and evolved only during this later lineage. In common to all vertebrates studied, the hypothalamus remains to be the key brain region in which orexinergic neurons and fibers are localized in, establishing orexin to be an important player in regulating physiological processes especially those related to food intake and energy metabolism. To allow better understanding of the evolution of orexins and their receptors, this review will provide a comparative approach to their structures and functions in vertebrates.General and Comparative Endocrinology 01/2011; 171(2):124-30. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined orexin-like immunoreactivity in the pituitary of the red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri). Orexin-B-immunoreactive (IR) cells corresponded to luteinizing hormone (LH)-containing cells in the pars distalis, and orexin-B-IR fibers corresponded to melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-containing fibers in the pars nervosa. In the pars distalis, orexin-B-IR puncta that were also immunoreactive for MCH were observed around the orexin-B-IR cells. In the ventral hypothalamus, orexin-B-IR and MCH-IR neurons were found in the nucleus lateralis tuberis. Immunoelectron-microscopic analysis revealed that the orexin-B-like substance co-localized with LH in secretory granules and with MCH in MCH-containing neurons. Some of the MCH secreted in the pituitary might participate in the modulation of LH secretion from the gonadotrophs, together with orexin-B, leading to food intake by the stimulation of growth hormone secretion from the somatotrophs.Cell and Tissue Research 11/2012; · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Energy balance plays an important role in the control of reproduction. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms connecting the two systems are not well understood especially in teleosts. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the regulation of both energy balance and reproduction, and contains a number of neuropeptides, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), orexin, neuropeptide-Y, ghrelin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholecystokinin, 26RFamide, nesfatin, kisspeptin, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone. These neuropeptides are involved in the control of energy balance and reproduction either directly or indirectly. On the other hand, synthesis and release of these hypothalamic neuropeptides are regulated by metabolic signals from the gut and the adipose tissue. Furthermore, neurons producing these neuropeptides interact with each other, providing neuronal basis of the link between energy balance and reproduction. This review summarizes the advances made in our understanding of the physiological roles of the hypothalamic neuropeptides in energy balance and reproduction in teleosts, and discusses how they interact with GnRH, kisspeptin, and pituitary gonadotropins to control reproduction in teleosts.Frontiers in Endocrinology 01/2014; 5:36.