Orexin-B-like immunoreactivity localized in both luteinizing hormone- and thyroid-stimulating hormone-containing cells in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) pituitary.
ABSTRACT Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to examine orexin-like immunoreactivities in the pituitary of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Rabbit anti-orexin-A serum and mouse anti-orexin-B monoclonal antibodies were used as primary antibodies. Orexin-B immunoreactive cells corresponded to luteinizing hormone (LH)- or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-containing cells, and all LH- and TSH-containing cells were immunoreactive for orexin-B. However, we found no orexin-A immunoreactive cells in the pituitary. In the Nile tilapia, an orexin-B-like substance may be secreted from LH- or TSH-containing cells and may regulate pituitary function, rather than the orexin-A-like substance in the pituitaries of Japanese seaperch and medaka.
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ABSTRACT: Energy balance plays an important role in the control of reproduction. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms connecting the two systems are not well understood especially in teleosts. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the regulation of both energy balance and reproduction, and contains a number of neuropeptides, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), orexin, neuropeptide-Y, ghrelin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholecystokinin, 26RFamide, nesfatin, kisspeptin, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone. These neuropeptides are involved in the control of energy balance and reproduction either directly or indirectly. On the other hand, synthesis and release of these hypothalamic neuropeptides are regulated by metabolic signals from the gut and the adipose tissue. Furthermore, neurons producing these neuropeptides interact with each other, providing neuronal basis of the link between energy balance and reproduction. This review summarizes the advances made in our understanding of the physiological roles of the hypothalamic neuropeptides in energy balance and reproduction in teleosts, and discusses how they interact with GnRH, kisspeptin, and pituitary gonadotropins to control reproduction in teleosts.Frontiers in Endocrinology 01/2014; 5:36.
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ABSTRACT: Lesioning and electrical stimulation experiments carried out during the first half of the twentieth century showed that the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is involved in the neuroendocrine control of hormone secretion. However, the molecular basis of this phenomenon remained unclear until fifty years later when in 1998, two different laboratories discovered a new family of hypothalamic neuropeptides, the orexins or hypocretins (OX-A/Hcrt1 and OX-B/Hcrt2). Since then, remarkable evidence has revealed that orexins/hypocretins play a prominent role in regulating virtually all the neuroendocrine axes, acting as pivotal signals in the coordination of endocrine responses with regards to sleep, arousal and energy homeostasis. The clinical relevance of these actions is supported by human data showing impairment of virtually all the neuroendocrine axes in orexin/hypocretin-deficient narcoleptic patients. Here, we summarize more than ten years of knowledge about the orexins/hypocretins with particular focus on their role as neuroendocrine regulators. Understanding this aspect of orexin/hypocretin physiology could open new therapeutic possibilities in the treatment of sleep, energy homeostasis and endocrine pathologies.Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 04/2009; 31(2):113-127. · 7.99 Impact Factor