Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to examine orexin-like immunoreactivities in the pituitary of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Rabbit anti-orexin-A serum and mouse anti-orexin-B monoclonal antibodies were used as primary antibodies. Orexin-B immunoreactive cells corresponded to luteinizing hormone (LH)- or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-containing cells, and all LH- and TSH-containing cells were immunoreactive for orexin-B. However, we found no orexin-A immunoreactive cells in the pituitary. In the Nile tilapia, an orexin-B-like substance may be secreted from LH- or TSH-containing cells and may regulate pituitary function, rather than the orexin-A-like substance in the pituitaries of Japanese seaperch and medaka.
"On the contrary, OX-B was found in all corticotropes of the anterior pituitary . Remarkably, this pattern of expression of orexins seems to have been conserved through evolution, since OX-A and OX-B immunoreactivity has been found in the anterior pituitary of fish species, such as Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  and amphibians, such as African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) . OXRs have also been shown to be present in anterior pituitary of rat     and human . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lesioning and electrical stimulation experiments carried out during the first half of the twentieth century showed that the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is involved in the neuroendocrine control of hormone secretion. However, the molecular basis of this phenomenon remained unclear until fifty years later when in 1998, two different laboratories discovered a new family of hypothalamic neuropeptides, the orexins or hypocretins (OX-A/Hcrt1 and OX-B/Hcrt2). Since then, remarkable evidence has revealed that orexins/hypocretins play a prominent role in regulating virtually all the neuroendocrine axes, acting as pivotal signals in the coordination of endocrine responses with regards to sleep, arousal and energy homeostasis. The clinical relevance of these actions is supported by human data showing impairment of virtually all the neuroendocrine axes in orexin/hypocretin-deficient narcoleptic patients. Here, we summarize more than ten years of knowledge about the orexins/hypocretins with particular focus on their role as neuroendocrine regulators. Understanding this aspect of orexin/hypocretin physiology could open new therapeutic possibilities in the treatment of sleep, energy homeostasis and endocrine pathologies.
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 04/2009; 31(2):113-127. DOI:10.1016/j.yfrne.2009.07.001 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. As the worldwide UMTS/WCDMA 3G/3.5G network deployment scheduled for next couple of years, mobile terminal testing industry strives to supply test equipment with sufficiently good features to meet the needs. I would like to share my industry experience on the requirements and technical challenges in building mobile terminal test equipment (also known as network simulator). The test applications covered in this presentation includes baseband chip and protocol design, manufacturing test, conformance test, and application test.
Wireless and Optical Communications, 2005. 14th Annual WOCC 2005. International Conference on; 05/2005
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