Prevention of hypoxic brain oedema by the administration of vasopressin receptor antagonist OPC-31260.
ABSTRACT The numerous situations which can result in cerebral hypoxic damage occur in newborn infants and in the elderly. In research aimed at more effective therapeutic intervention in ischaemic disorders of the brain, the animal model used and the principles of the causal therapy should be better outlined. The effects of the non-peptide AVPR (V2) antagonist 5-dimethylamino-1-[4-(2-methylbenzoylamino) benzoyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzazepine hydrochloride (OPC-31260) on the cerebral oedema induced by general cerebral hypoxia were studied in rats. The general cerebral hypoxia was produced by bilateral common carotid ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats of the CFY strain. By 6h after the ligation, half of the rats had died, but the survival rate was significantly higher following OPC-31260 administration. Electron microscopic examinations revealed typical ischaemic changes after the carotid ligation, and OPC-31260 treatment did not significantly reduce the hypoxic signs in the brain cortex; only a certain decrease in the pericapillary oedema was observed. The carotid ligation increased the brain contents of water and Na(+) and enhanced the plasma AVP level. The increased brain water and Na(+) accumulation was prevented by OPC-31260 administration, but the plasma AVP level was further enhanced by OPC-31260. These results demonstrate the important role of AVP in the development of the disturbances in brain water and electrolyte balance in response to general cerebral hypoxia. The carotid ligation-induced cerebral oedema was significantly reduced following oral OPC-31260 administration. The protective mechanism exerted by OPC-31260 stems from its influence on the renal AVPR (V2). These observations might suggest an effective approach to the treatment of global hypoxia-induced cerebral oedema in humans.
- SourceAvailable from: Daniel John Peet[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells adapt to hypoxic conditions through a transcriptional response pathway mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF. HIF transcriptional activity is suppressed under normoxic conditions by hydroxylation of an asparagine residue within its C-terminal transactivation domain, blocking association with coactivators. Here we show that the protein FIH-1, previously shown to interact with HIF, is an asparaginyl hydroxylase. Like known hydroxylase enzymes, FIH-1 is an Fe(II)-dependent enzyme that uses molecular O(2) to modify its substrate. Together with the recently discovered prolyl hydroxylases that regulate HIF stability, this class of oxygen-dependent enzymes comprises critical regulatory components of the hypoxic response pathway.Genes & Development 07/2002; 16(12):1466-71. · 12.44 Impact Factor
- AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 10/2007; 293(3):L555-6. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vivo effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on bone formation was examined in rats. Daily systemic injections of 100 micrograms/kg bFGF for 7 days caused a marked stimulation of endosteal bone formation in both cortical and secondary cancellous bone areas. Histological examinations revealed that the sequence of responses to the injections of bFGF consisted of three phases: an early increase in the number of preosteoblastic cells over the osteoblastic cell layer (days 1-3), recruitment of osteoblasts from preosteoblastic cells (days 3-5), and an increase in new bone formation (days 5-7). These histological changes in the endosteum correlated closely with histomorphometrical parameters of bone formation, and the endosteal mineral apposition rate was almost unaffected during the initial 4 days but was markedly enhanced after this period. Immunohistochemical examinations using antitransforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 antibody demonstrated that immunostaining of preosteoblastic cells for TGF-beta already increased 1 day after bFGF treatment. Distribution of TGF-beta in osteoblasts and bone matrices began to increase on day 3, and all the osteoblasts and new bone matrices were intensively immuno-stained on day 7. These results demonstrate that systemic injections of bFGF in rats stimulate endosteal bone formation, and that the stimulation of bone formation is preceded by an initial increase in preosteoblastic cells with later recruitment of osteoblasts from these cells. Because the distribution of TGF-beta in the endosteal cells is increased by bFGF, the effect of bFGF may at least in part be mediated by TGF-beta. However, the precise mechanism of action of bFGF on bone formation remains to be clarified.Endocrinology 04/1995; 136(3):1276-84. · 4.72 Impact Factor