Configuration of the vitamin E analogue garcinoic acid extracted from Garcinia Kola seeds.
ABSTRACT Vitamin E derivatives bearing a carboxylic group have recently gained great attention because of their antitumoral properties. Garcinoic acid (trans-13'-carboxy-delta-tocotrienol) is a vitamin E analog extracted from Garcinia Kola seeds in which the carboxylic group is at the end of the aliphatic side chain and reported to be a racemate based on the optical rotation measurements. However, CD determination of a sample of the acid analyzed by us gave a positive peak at 208 nm, indicating that it is not a racemate. To assess the enantiomeric composition of garcinoic acid, it was thus transformed to alpha-tocopherol and analyzed by chiral HPLC on column OD-H. On the basis of the elution order of alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers, the garcinoic acid sample resulted to be enantiopure with R configuration at carbon 2 of the chroman ring. Moreover, in a preliminary test, the acid and some of its derivatives showed a marked antiproliferative effect on glioma C6 cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin E is likely the most important antioxidant in the human diet and α-tocopherol is the most active isomer. α-Tocopherol exhibits anti-oxidative capacity in vitro, and inhibits oxidation of LDL. Beside this, α-tocopherol shows anti-inflammatory activity and modulates expression of proteins involved in uptake, transport and degradation of tocopherols, as well as the uptake, storage and export of lipids such as cholesterol. Despite promising anti-atherogenic features in vitro, vitamin E failed to be atheroprotective in clinical trials in humans. Recent studies highlight the importance of long-chain metabolites of α-tocopherol, which are formed as catabolic intermediate products in the liver and occur in human plasma. These metabolites modulate inflammatory processes and macrophage foam cell formation via mechanisms different than that of their metabolic precursor α-tocopherol and at lower concentrations. Here we summarize the controversial role of vitamin E as a preventive agent against atherosclerosis and point the attention to recent findings that highlight a role of these long-chain metabolites of vitamin E as a proposed new class of regulatory metabolites. We speculate that the metabolites contribute to physiological as well as pathophysiological processes.Redox biology. 01/2014; 2:495-503.
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ABSTRACT: The validity of the chromane helicity rule correlating the sense of twist within the dihydropyran ring with the CD sign of the (1)Lb band observed at ca. 290 nm in their electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra is examined using a set of natural (S)-trolox derivatives. To investigate both the scope and the limitations of the rule a combination of ECD spectroscopy, especially the temperature dependence of the ECD spectra, single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used. A thorough conformational analysis supported by the X-ray data led to the identification of predominant conformers. Then, a comparison of the experimental ECD spectra with the spectra simulated by TDDFT calculations allowed for a reasonable interpretation of the accumulated data. The results clearly indicated that to avoid the possibility of erroneous conclusions the chromane helicity rule should be used with great caution. This is likely related to the conformational flexibility of tested compounds by which conformers of different helicities can be produced. Therefore, based on the results presented here, it is strongly recommended that the conclusions derived from analysis of experimental data are supported with the appropriate theoretical computations.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 02/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of diabetes is on a steady increase worldwide and it is now identified as one of the main threats to human health in the 21(st) century. In Nigeria, the use of herbal medicine alone or alongside prescription drugs for its management is quite common. We hereby carry out a review of medicinal plants traditionally used for diabetes management in Nigeria. Based on the available evidence on the species' pharmacology and safety, we highlight ways in which their therapeutic potential can be properly harnessed for possible integration into the country's healthcare system.Journal of ethnopharmacology. 06/2014;