Article

Differences in pathogenicity and clinical syndromes due to Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus.

Infection Control Department at Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Porto Alegre, and Post-Graduation Program in Pulmonary Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (Impact Factor: 2.13). 01/2009; 47 Suppl 1:S261-70. DOI: 10.1080/13693780802247702
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Most of the information available about Aspergillus infections has originated from the study of A. fumigatus, the most frequent species in the genus. This review aims to compare the pathogenicity and clinical aspects of Aspergillosis caused by A. fumigatus an A. flavus. Experimental data suggests that A. flavus is more virulent than A. fumigatus. However, these were mostly models of disseminated Aspergillus infection which do not properly mimic the physiopathology of invasive aspergillosis, a condition that is usually acquired by inhalation. In addition, no conclusive virulence factor has been identified for Aspergillus species. A. flavus is a common cause of fungal sinusitis and cutaneous infections. Chronic conditions such as chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis and sinuses fungal balls have rarely been associated with A. flavus. The bigger size of A. flavus spores, in comparison to those of A. fumigatus spores, may favour their deposit in the upper respiratory tract. Differences between these species justify the need for a better understanding of A. flavus infections.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
77 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal infections are a significant health problem in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations vary and can range from colonization in allergic bronchopulmonary disease to active infection in local aetiologic agents. Many factors influence the virulence and pathogenic capacity of the microorganisms, such as enzymes including extracellular phospholipases, lipases and proteinases, dimorphic growth in some Candida species, melanin production, mannitol secretion, superoxide dismutase, rapid growth and affinity to the blood stream, heat tolerance and toxin production. Infection is confirmed when histopathologic examination with special stains demonstrates fungal tissue involvement or when the aetiologic agent is isolated from sterile clinical specimens by culture. Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiency may be associated with increased susceptibility to systemic infections. Fungal infection is difficult to treat because antifungal therapy for Candida infections is still controversial and based on clinical grounds, and for molds, the clinician must assume that the species isolated from the culture medium is the pathogen. Timely initiation of antifungal treatment is a critical component affecting the outcome. Disseminated infection requires the use of systemic agents with or without surgical debridement, and in some cases immunotherapy is also advisable. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between drug dose and treatment outcome. Drug dose monitoring is necessary to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved for optimal clinical efficacy. The objectives of this review are to discuss opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods and the management of these infections.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 02/2014; 139(2):195-204. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ceratocystis adiposa known as phytopathogen of conifers has not been recognized so far as a human pathogen. Herein, we report for the first time a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis due to C. adiposa. The fungus was identified by sequencing internal transcribed spacer of rDNA and D1/D2 of larger subunit region.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 11/2013; · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. The aim of this systematic review is to study the causes of odontogenic chronic maxillary rhinosinusitis (CMRS), the average age of the patients, the distribution by sex, and the teeth involved. Materials and Methods. We performed an EMBASE-, Cochrane-, and PubMed-based review of all of the described cases of odontogenic CMRS from January 1980 to January 2013. Issues of clinical relevance, such as the primary aetiology and the teeth involved, were evaluated for each case. Results. From the 190 identified publications, 23 were selected for a total of 674 patients following inclusion criteria. According to these data, the main cause of odontogenic CMRS is iatrogenic, accounting for 65.7% of the cases. Apical periodontal pathologies (apical granulomas, odontogenic cysts, and apical periodontitis) follow them and account for 25.1% of the cases. The most commonly involved teeth are the first and second molars. Conclusion. Odontogenic CMRS is a common disease that must be suspected whenever a patient undergoing dental treatment presents unilateral maxillary chronic rhinosinusitis.
    International Journal of Otolaryngology 01/2014; 2014:465173.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
113 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014