Pycnogenol®, a procyanidin-rich extract from French maritime pine, inhibits intracellular replication of HIV-1 as well as its binding to host cells

Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-5819, Japan. .
Japanese journal of infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 1.16). 07/2008; 61(4):279-85.
Source: PubMed


A procyanidin-rich extract from French maritime pine, Pycnogenol(R) (PYC), is known as an antioxidant that exerts a variety of physiological activities and is widely used in human beings. We report here that PYC inhibits not only human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) binding to host cells, but also its replication after entry in susceptible cells in vitro. Prominent biochemical alterations induced by PYC were the elevated expression of an intracellular antioxidant protein, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), and the inhibition of phosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 protein. Interestingly, ectopic expression of Mn-SOD inhibited HIV-1 replication as well. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication associated with induced expression of Mn-SOD in cells treated with PYC suggests the potential of this natural antioxidant inducer as a new anti-HIV-1 agent.

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Available from: Tohti Amet, Oct 02, 2015
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    • "A recent report suggests that PYC can inhibit encephalomyocarditis virus replication in the mouse heart by suppressing expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and genes related to cardiac remodelling and mast cells (Matsumori et al., 2007). PYC has also been reported to inhibit binding of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 to host cells, and to cause other significant changes, including increased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Feng et al., 2008). HCV gene expression elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels via calcium signalling. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the last decade, the current standard HCV treatment, pegylated interferon and ribavirin, have limited efficacy and significant side effects. Novel direct acting antivirals show promise, but escape mutants are expected, along with potential side effects. Pycnogenol®, a French maritime pine extract, has been reported to have antioxidant and antiviral effects. Here, we evaluated the effect of Pycnogenol® on HCV replication. Wild-type and protease inhibitor (VX-950; telaprevir)-resistant HCV replicon cells were treated with Pycnogenol®, Pycnogenol® and interferon-alpha, and ribavirin and telaprevir. Pycnogenol® effects on replication were also evaluated in HCV-infected chimeric mice. Pycnogenol® treatment showed antiviral effects without cytotoxicity at doses up to 50 μg/mL. Pycnogenol® in combination with interferon-alpha or ribavirin showed synergistic effects. Moreover, Pycnogenol® inhibited HCV replication in telaprevir-resistant replicon cells; telaprevir and Pycnogenol® acted additively to reduce HCV RNA levels in wild-type HCV replicon cells without significantly increasing cytotoxicity. Pycnogenol® antiviral activity was higher than its components procyanidin and taxifolin. Further, treatment of infected chimeric mice with Pycnogenol® suppressed HCV replication and showed a synergistic effect with interferon-alpha. In addition, Pycnogenol® treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of reactive oxygen species in HCV replicon cell lines. Pycnogenol® is a natural product that may be used to improve the efficacy of the current standard antiviral agents and even to eliminate resistant HCV mutants.
    Antiviral Research 01/2015; 113:93-102. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.10.017 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    • "Additionally, the ectopic expression of Mn-SOD also inhibits HIV-1 replication, providing another route by which PYC acts as an anti–HIV-1 agent (Feng et al., 2008). PYC also inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori, albeit to a limited extent, and also perturbs their adherence to gastric cells (Rohdewald and Beil, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Proanthocyanidins are among the most abundant constituents in pine bark extracts (PBEs). This review summarizes medical research on PBEs from Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata, Pinus massoniana, and other less well-characterized species. The precise mechanisms of the important physiological functions of PBE components remain to be elucidated, but there is evidently great potential for the identification and development of novel antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer medicines. Although toxicological data for PBEs are limited, no serious adverse effects have been reported. PBEs may therefore have potential as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals and should be safe for use as food ingredients.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2015; 353(1):9-16. DOI:10.1124/jpet.114.220277 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    • "PBE is a promising agent for inhibi-tion of encephalomyocarditis viral replication, prevention of development of viral myocarditis, and improvement of inflamma-tion and myocardial necrosis. It was reported that Pycnogenol® (100 mg/kg) had beneficial effects on viral myocarditis by inhibition of viral replication and by suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, genes related to cardiac remodeling, and mast cell-related genes in the heart muscle of mice (gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor, type-1 procollagen, stem cell factor, and mast cell tryptase)(8182). "
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    ABSTRACT: In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE.
    Research in pharmaceutical sciences 03/2011; 6(1):1-11.
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