Raynauld, J. P. et al. Protective effects of licofelone, a 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, versus naproxen on cartilage loss in knee osteoarthritis: a first multicenter clinical trial using quantitative MRI. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 68, 938-947
In a multicentre study to explore the effects of licofelone as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug in comparison with naproxen in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), using MRI and x-ray examination.
Patients with knee OA (n = 355) were randomised to receive either licofelone (200 mg twice a day) or naproxen (500 mg twice a day). MRI and x-ray examinations were performed at baseline, 6 months (MRI only), 12 and 24 months. MRI was used to assess quantitatively changes in cartilage volume, and x-ray examinations (Lyon-Schuss) to measure changes in the mean and minimum joint space width (JSW) in the medial compartment. Questionnaires probing symptoms were completed. Data were presented as intention to treat (ITT) and according to protocol (ATP).
Cartilage volume loss in the global joint and medial and lateral compartments was significantly less in the licofelone than in the naproxen group for ITT at 12 and 24 months and for ATP at all times except in the medial compartment. Patients with medial meniscal extrusion had a greater loss of cartilage volume. In these patients, licofelone markedly reduced the cartilage loss for both ITT and ATP at 12 and 24 months. Although licofelone showed less reduction in the JSW than naproxen, this did not reach significance. All clinical variables were improved at 24 months (p<0.001) for both groups, with a good safety profile.
Licofelone and naproxen were equally effective in reducing OA symptoms; however, licofelone significantly reduced cartilage volume loss over time, thus having a protective effect in patients with knee OA. This study proves the superiority of quantitative MRI over x-ray examinations in a multicentre clinical trial.
"Other plausible approaches to reduce neuroinflammation-associated pain have not yet been tested in clinical trials on neuropathic pain. Licofelone, which inhibits both COX and LOX enzymes in the arachidonic acid cascade, has shown effectiveness in clinical trials on arthritis, albeit with mixed results on pain (Raynauld et al., 2009; Wildi et al., 2010). Arthritic pain and central neuroinflammatory pain may differ in critical underlying mechanisms, so the possibility remains that neuropathic SCI pain will be sensitive to licofelone. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is common, often intractable, and can be severely debilitating. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for this pain, which are discussed briefly, along with methods for revealing SCI pain in animal models, such as the recently applied conditioned place preference test. During the last decade, studies of animal models have shown that both central neuroinflammation and behavioral hypersensitivity (indirect reflex measures of pain) persist chronically after SCI. Interventions that reduce neuroinflammation have been found to ameliorate pain-related behavior, such as treatment with agents that inhibit the activation states of microglia and/or astroglia (including IL-10, minocycline, etanercept, propentofylline, ibudilast, licofelone, SP600125, carbenoxolone). Reversal of pain-related behavior has also been shown with disruption by an inhibitor (CR8) and/or genetic deletion of cell cycle-related proteins, deletion of a truncated receptor (trkB.T1) for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or reduction by antisense knockdown or an inhibitor (AMG9810) of the activity of channels (TRPV1 or Nav1.8) important for electrical activity in primary nociceptors. Nociceptor activity is known to drive central neuroinflammation in peripheral injury models, and nociceptors appear to be an integral component of host defense. Thus, emerging results suggest that spinal and systemic effects of SCI can activate nociceptor-mediated host defense responses that interact via neuroinflammatory signaling with complex central consequences of SCI to drive chronic pain. This broader view of SCI-induced neuroinflammation suggests new targets, and additional complications, for efforts to develop effective treatments for neuropathic SCI pain.
"Previously, many DMOADs have demonstrated efficacy in the dog OA model, including the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor doxycycline [59, 60], the viscosupplementation via local hyaluronan [61, 62], the antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonate [11, 63] and calcitonin , the anti-inflammatory properties of diacerhein , licofelone , and NSAIDs (such as carprofen). All these products but calcitonin (probably related to a deficient formulation) demonstrated similar efficacy in human OA [51, 66–73]. To the best of authors' knowledge, no other preclinical animal OA model presents a better translational predictability record, partly because species differences with respect to the relative contribution of various mediators, receptors, or enzymes to the pathology and xenobiotics metabolism are common. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For many years Canis familiaris, the domestic dog, has drawn particular interest as a model of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we optimized the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament sectioning. The usefulness of noninvasive complementary outcome measures, such as gait analysis for the limb function and magnetic resonance imaging for structural changes, was demonstrated in this model. Relationships were established between the functional impairment and the severity of structural changes including the measurement of cartilage thinning. In the dog model of naturally occurring OA, excellent test-retest reliability was denoted for the measurement of the limb function. A criterion to identify clinically meaningful responders to therapy was determined for privately owned dogs undergoing clinical trials. In addition, the recording of accelerometer-based duration of locomotor activity showed strong and complementary agreement with the biomechanical limb function. The translation potential of these models to the human OA condition is underlined. A preclinical testing protocol which combines the dog model of experimental OA induced by cranial cruciate ligament transection and the Dog model of naturally occurring OA offers the opportunity to further investigate the structural and functional benefits of disease-modifying strategies. Ultimately, a better prediction of outcomes for human clinical trials would be brought.
"While the ideal way to address this would probably be to take advantage of the canine's tendency to develop spontaneous OA, Moreau et al. attempted to address it by delaying licofelone until 4 weeks after ACL transection, showing that licofelone was still effective . Licofelone has recently been studied in humans and has shown potential as a disease-modifying agent . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knee osteoarthritis remains a tremendous public health concern, both in terms of health-related quality of life and financial burden of disease. Translational research is a critical step towards understanding and mitigating the long-term effects of this disease process. Animal models provide practical and clinically relevant ways to study both the natural history and response to treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Many factors including size, cost, and method of inducing osteoarthritis are important considerations for choosing an appropriate animal model. Smaller animals are useful because of their ease of use and cost, while larger animals are advantageous because of their anatomical similarity to humans. This evidence-based review will compare and contrast several different animal models for knee osteoarthritis. Our goal is to inform the clinician about current research models, in order to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the "bench" to the "bedside."
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