Article

Uncoupling of ER-mitochondrial calcium communication by transforming growth factor-beta

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology (Impact Factor: 3.3). 11/2008; 295(5):F1303-12. DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.90343.2008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated as a key factor in mediating many cellular processes germane to disease pathogenesis, including diabetic vascular complications. TGF-beta alters cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c) signals, which in some cases may result from the downregulation of the IP3 receptor Ca2+ channels (IP3R). Ca2+ released by IP3Rs is effectively transferred from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the mitochondria to stimulate ATP production and to allow feedback control of the Ca2+ mobilization. To assess the effect of TGF-beta on the ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer, we first studied the [Ca2+]c and mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) signals in single preglomerular afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells (PGASMC). TGF-beta pretreatment (24 h) decreased both the [Ca2+]c and [Ca2+]m responses evoked by angiotensin II or endothelin. Strikingly, the [Ca2+]m signal was more depressed than the [Ca2+]c signal and was delayed. In permeabilized cells, TGF-beta pretreatment attenuated the rate but not the magnitude of the IP(3)-induced [Ca2+]c rise, yet caused massive depression of the [Ca2+]m responses. ER Ca2+ storage and mitochondrial uptake of added Ca2+ were not affected by TGF-beta. Also, TGF-beta had no effect on mitochondrial distribution and on the ER-mitochondrial contacts assessed by two-photon NAD(P)H imaging and electron microscopy. Downregulation of both IP3R1 and IP3R3 was found in TGF-beta-treated PGASMC. Thus, TGF-beta causes uncoupling of mitochondria from the ER Ca2+ release. The sole source of this would be suppression of the IP3R-mediated Ca2+ efflux, indicating that the ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer depends on the maximal rate of Ca2+ release. The impaired ER-mitochondrial coupling may contribute to the vascular pathophysiology associated with TGF-beta production.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
176 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that the T cell activation inhibitor, mitochondrial (Tcaim) is highly expressed in grafts of tolerance-developing transplant recipients and that the encoded protein is localized within mitochondria. In this study, we show that CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs), as main producers of TCAIM, downregulate Tcaim expression after LPS stimulation or in vivo alloantigen challenge. LPS-stimulated TCAIM-overexpressing bone marrow-derived DC (BMDCs) have a reduced capacity to induce proliferation of and cytokine expression by cocultured allogeneic T cells; this is not due to diminished upregulation of MHC or costimulatory molecules. Transcriptional profiling also revealed normal LPS-mediated upregulation of the majority of genes involved in TLR signaling. However, TCAIM BMDCs did not induce Il2 mRNA expression upon LPS stimulation in comparison with Control-BMDCs. In addition, TCAIM overexpression abolished LPS-mediated Ca(2+) influx and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation. Addition of IL-2 to BMDC-T cell cocultures restored the priming capacity of TCAIM BMDCs for cocultured allogeneic CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, BMDCs of IL-2-deficient mice showed similarly abolished LPS-induced T cell priming as TCAIM-overexpressing wild type BMDCs. Thus, TCAIM interferes with TLR4 signaling in BMDCs and subsequently impairs their T cell priming capacity, which supports its role for tolerance induction. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial Ca(2+) plays a critical physiological role in cellular energy metabolism and signaling, and its overload contributes to various pathological conditions including neuronal apoptotic death in neurological diseases. Live cell mitochondrial Ca(2+) imaging is an important approach to understand mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics. Recently developed GCaMP genetically-encoded Ca(2+) indicators provide unique opportunity for high sensitivity/resolution and cell type-specific mitochondrial Ca(2+) imaging. In the current study, we implemented cell-specific mitochondrial targeting of GCaMP5G/6s (mito-GCaMP5G/6s) and used two-photon microscopy to image astrocytic and neuronal mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics in culture, revealing Ca(2+) uptake mechanism by these organelles in response to cell stimulation. Using these mitochondrial Ca(2+) indicators, our results show that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in individual mitochondria in cultured astrocytes and neurons can be seen after stimulations by ATP and glutamate, respectively. We further studied the dependence of mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics on cytosolic Ca(2+) changes following ATP stimulation in cultured astrocytes by simultaneously imaging mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca(2+) increase using mito-GCaMP5G and a synthetic organic Ca(2+) indicator, x-Rhod-1, respectively. Combined with molecular intervention in Ca(2+) signaling pathway, our results demonstrated that the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is tightly coupled with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and the activation of G protein-coupled receptors. The current study provides a novel approach to image mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics as well as Ca(2+) interplay between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which is relevant for neuronal and astrocytic functions in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cell Calcium 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ceca.2014.09.008 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • 01/2012; 4(1):1-102. DOI:10.4199/C00043ED1V01Y201112ISP032

Full-text

Download
83 Downloads
Available from
May 26, 2014