Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa.
ABSTRACT Assessment of antiretroviral treatment programmes for HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa is important to enable the development of effective care and improve treatment outcomes. We review the effectiveness of paediatric antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa and discuss the implications of these findings for the care and treatment of HIV-infected children in this region. Available reports indicate that programmes in sub-Saharan Africa achieve treatment outcomes similar to those in North America and Europe. However, progress in several areas is required to improve the care of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings emphasise the need for low-cost diagnostic tests that allow for earlier identification of HIV infection in infants living in sub-Saharan Africa, improved access to antiretroviral treatment programmes, including expansion of care into rural areas, and the integration of antiretroviral treatment programmes with other health-care services, such as nutritional support.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine age differences in mortality and programme attrition amongst paediatric patients treated in four African HIV programmes. Methods Longitudinal analysis of data from patients enrolled in HIV care. Two-year mortality and programme attrition rates per 1000 person-years stratified by age group (<2, 2–4 and 5–15 years) were calculated. Associations between outcomes and age and other individual-level factors were studied using multiple Cox proportional hazards (mortality) and Poisson (attrition) regression models. Results Six thousand two hundred and sixty-one patients contributed 9500 person-years; 27.1% were aged <2 years, 30.1% were 2–4, and 42.8% were 5–14 years old. At programme entry, 45.3% were underweight and 12.6% were in clinical stage 4. The highest mortality and attrition rates (98.85 and 244.00 per 1000 person-years), and relative ratios (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.92, 95% CI 1.56–2.37; incidence ratio [aIR] = 2.10, 95% CI 1.86–2.37, respectively, compared with the 5- to 14-year group) were observed amongst the youngest children. Increased mortality and attrition were also associated with advanced clinical stage, underweight and diagnosis of tuberculosis at programme entry. Conclusions These results highlight the need to increase access, diagnose and provide early HIV care and to accelerate antiretroviral treatment initiation for those eligible. Adapted education and support for children and their families would also be important.Tropical Medicine & International Health 06/2013; 18(9). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12142 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is one of the most common neoplasms diagnosed in HIV-seropositive subjects. Oral involvement is frequent and is associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the features of oral HIV-KS in patients from Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa. Methods. All cases with confirmed oral HIV-KS treated at the oral medicine clinic in Ga-Rankuwa from 2004 to 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Differences between males and females with oral HIV-KS in relation to HIV infection status, to oral KS presentation and to survival rates were statistically analysed. Results. Twenty (54%) of the 37 patients in the study were females and 17 (46%) were males. In 21 patients (57%), the initial presentation of HIV-KS was in the mouth. Other than the fact that females presented with larger (≥10 mm) oral KS lesions (P = 0.0004), there were no statistically significant gender differences. Significantly more patients presented with multiple oral HIV-KS lesions than with single lesions (P = 0.0003). Nine patients (24%) developed concomitant facial lymphoedema, and these patients had a significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count (28 cells/mm(3)) compared to the rest of the group (130 cells/mm(3)) (P = 0.01). The average CD4+ T-cell count of the patients who died (64 cells/mm(3)) was significantly lower (P = 0.0004), there were no statistically significant gender differences. Significantly more patients presented with multiple oral HIV-KS lesions than with single lesions (P = 0.016) at the time of oral-KS presentation than of those who survived (166 cells/mm(3)). CONCLUSIONS: In Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa where HIV-KS is prevalent, oral KS affects similarly males and females. A low CD4+ T-cell count at the time of oral HIV-KS diagnosis and the development of facial lymphoedema during the course of HIV-KS disease portends a poor prognosis.AIDS research and treatment 09/2012; 2012:873171. DOI:10.1155/2012/873171
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ABSTRACT: Although the advantages of early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment initiation are well established, children often present late to HIV programs in resource-limited settings. We aimed to assess factors related to the timing of treatment initiation among HIV-infected children attending three clinical sites in Uganda. Clinical and demographic determinants associated with early disease (WHO clinical stages 1-2) or late disease (stages 3-4) stage at presentation were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Additionally, semistructured interviews with caregivers and health workers were conducted to qualitatively explore determinants of late disease stage at presentation. Of 306 children initiating first-line regimens, 72% presented late. Risk factors for late presentation were age below 2 years old (OR 2.83, P = 0.014), living without parents (OR 3.93, P = 0.002), unemployment of the caregiver (OR 4.26, P = 0.001), lack of perinatal HIV prophylaxis (OR 5.66, P = 0.028), and high transportation costs to the clinic (OR 2.51, P = 0.072). Forty-nine interviews were conducted, confirming the identified risk factors and additionally pointing to inconsistent referral from perinatal care, caregivers' unawareness of HIV symptoms, fear, and stigma as important barriers. The problem of late disease at presentation requires a multifactorial approach, addressing both health system and individual-level factors.AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:817506. DOI:10.1155/2012/817506