Sunburns and risk of cutaneous melanoma: does age matter? A comprehensive meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT Sunburns are an important risk factor for melanoma and those occurring in childhood are often cited as posing the greatest risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the magnitude of association for melanoma and sunburns during childhood, adolescence, adulthood and over a lifetime.
After reviewing over 1300 article titles and evaluating 270 articles in detail, we pooled odds ratios from 51 independent study populations for "ever" sunburned and risk of cutaneous melanoma. Among these, 26 studies reported results from dose-response analyses. Dose-response analyses were examined using both fixed-effects models and Bayesian random-effects models.
An increased risk of melanoma was seen with increasing number of sunburns for all time-periods (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and lifetime). In an attempt to understand how risk between life-periods compares, we also report these same linear models on a scale of five sunburns per decade for each life-period. The magnitude of risk for five sunburns per decade is highest for adult and lifetime sunburns.
Overall, these results show an increased risk of melanoma with increasing number of sunburns during all life-periods, not just childhood. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing sunburns during all life-periods.
Article: Epidemiological differences for cutaneous melanoma in a relatively dark-skinned Caucasian population with chronic sun exposure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to reveal differences in the epidemiology and to identify significant risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM) in a relatively dark-skinned, chronically sun-exposed Caucasian population. This group is considered to have a low risk for this tumour. One hundred and ten newly diagnosed patients with primary CM and 110 age- and gender-matched controls, all of Cretan origin, were interviewed and underwent a complete skin examination. Solar keratoses odds ratio (OR) 6.2 and lentigines (OR 2.2), common and atypical naevi (OR 5.4 and 3.0, respectively), blonde or red hair colour (OR 3.1), skin phototypes I/II (OR 1.8), as well as total sun exposure (weeks per year) (OR 1.03), were all significantly associated with CM risk in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the relatively dark-skinned Cretan population, sun exposure indices represent the most important risk markers for CM which contrasts with data from fair-skinned Caucasian populations where melanocytic naevi are the main risk factors.European Journal of Cancer 12/2004; 40(16):2502-7. · 5.54 Impact Factor
Article: A prospective study of pigmentation, sun exposure, and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma in women.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although sun exposure is an established cause of cutaneous malignant melanoma, possible interactions with host factors remain incompletely understood. Here we report the first results from a large prospective cohort study of pigmentation factors and sun exposure in relation to melanoma risk. The Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study included 106 379 women from Norway and Sweden who were aged 30-50 years in 1991 or 1992 when they completed an extensive questionnaire on personal characteristics and exposures. Linkages to national registries ensured complete follow-up through December 31, 1999. Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs). All statistical tests were two-sided. During an average follow-up of 8.1 years, 187 cases of melanoma were diagnosed. Risk of melanoma was statistically significantly associated with increasing body surface area (RR for > or =1.79 m2 versus < or =1.61 m2 = 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 2.48; P(trend) =.02), number of large asymmetric nevi on the legs (RR for > or =7 nevi versus 0 nevi = 5.29, 95% CI = 2.33 to 12.01; P(trend)<.001), hair color (RR for red versus dark brown or black = 4.05, 95% CI = 2.11 to 7.76; P(trend)<.001), sunburns per year at ages 10-19, 20-29, and 30-39 years (P(trend)<.001, P(trend) =.03, and P(trend) =.05, respectively), and use of a device that emits artificial light (solarium) one or more times per month (P =.04). Our results confirm previous findings that hair color, number of nevi on the legs, and history of sunburn are risk factors for melanoma and suggest that use of a solarium is also associated with melanoma risk. Adolescence and early adulthood appear to be among the most sensitive age periods for the effects of sunburn and solarium use on melanoma risk. However, it may be too early to see the full effect of adult exposures in this cohort.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 10/2003; 95(20):1530-8. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The p53 gene plays an important role in cell cycle control, facilitating DNA repair activities in response to DNA damage. Aberrant cell cycle control impairs DNA repair and increases the probability of mutations that can lead to carcinogenesis. The p53 gene is polymorphic at codon 72 (Arg/Pro) of its protein, which is functionally distinct, leading to inquiry into its role in carcinogenesis. In this hospital-based case-control study of 289 newly diagnosed patients with melanoma and 308 cancer-free control subjects, we evaluated whether the p53 codon 72 variant is associated with risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM). The controls were frequency-matched to the cases by age, sex, and ethnicity. The frequency of the p53 Arg allele was 78.2% in cases and 73.2% in controls (p=0.045), and the genotype frequencies of p53 Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, and Pro/Pro were 62.6%, 31.1%, and 6.3%, respectively, in the cases, and 53.9%, 38.6%, and 7.5%, respectively, in the controls (p=0.096). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the p53 Arg/Arg genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of melanoma (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-2.02) compared with other genotypes, and this association was more evident in subgroups of older subjects (OR=2.32; 95% CI=1.39-388), and subjects with Fitzpatrick's skin type III or IV (OR=1.69; 95% CI=1.11-2.59). In conclusion, this study found some evidence that in subjects over 50, p53 Arg/Arg genotype is associated with increased risk of CM as compared to genotypes Arg/Pro or Pro/Pro. Further larger studies are needed to substantiate our findings.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2004; 121(6):1510-4. · 6.31 Impact Factor