Collecting duct carcinoma arising in association with BK nephropathy post-transplantation in a pediatric patient. A case report with immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study.
ABSTRACT The development of malignancy in a renal transplant graft is an uncommon phenomenon. A renal neoplasm developing in the adult donor kidney of a pediatric transplant recipient has only rarely been reported. We report a case of collecting duct carcinoma arising in association with BK virus nephropathy in an adult living-related donor renal allograft to a pediatric recipient. Our case is the second report of neoplasia occurring in association with BK virus nephropathy post-transplantation, suggesting that BK virus may play a role in oncogenesis. It has been proposed that the T-Ag protein encoded by the polyomavirus family of viruses disrupts chromosomal integrity, creating oncogenes, and inactivating tumor suppressor genes. In our study, immunohistochemical staining with antibody directed against BK virus large T antigen showed nuclear staining within urothelium, tubular epithelium, tubular intraepithelial neoplasia, and invasive carcinoma. In situ hybridization did not identify BK virus DNA within neoplastic cells. T-Ag protein expression has been shown to be tumor-specific in bladder, gastric, and colorectal cancers. The finding of T-Ag protein expression in both intraepithelial and invasive neoplastic tissues in our case raises the possibility of BK virus as a causative agent in oncogenesis.
Transplant Infectious Disease 09/2013; DOI:10.1111/tid.12142 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Waterborne exposure to human viruses through contact with sewage-contaminated water environments can result in infections associated with a wide range of illnesses. Gastrointestinal symptoms are the most commonly encountered manifestations of waterborne viral illness. Respiratory diseases, neurological diseases and paralysis can also occur. Whether viral infections resulting in health outcomes like cancer might also be transmitted by the waterborne route is unknown. Recently, viruses belonging to two oncogenic groups-Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) and Human Polyomaviruses (HPyVs)-have been detected in urban sewages worldwide. The latter have also been identified in other water environments. HPVs are epitheliotropic viruses responsible for several diseases of skin and mucosae, from common warts to squamous intraepithelial lesions that can either heal or progress to invasive carcinoma of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus or oropharynx. Human PyVs infect different tissues and organs, causing infections that are usually subclinical in immunocompetent individuals but can be serious in immunocompromised hosts. These pathogens belong to a family of DNA tumour viruses. Merkel cell polyomavirus, a HPyV identified in recent years, has attracted much attention due to its link with a rare and aggressive form of human cancer. Merkel cell carcinoma, the incidence of which has tripled over the past two decades. JC polyomavirus and BK polyomavirus are also potentially oncogenic. The observed abundance and wide dissemination of HPVs and HPyVs in water environments strongly suggest the need to shed light on the fate of these viruses in water environments and to elucidate their potential for waterborne transmission. Such information is essential for the improvement of wastewater management programs in terms of both sewage treatment and water quality surveillance.Food and Environmental Virology 11/2013; 6(1). DOI:10.1007/s12560-013-9134-0 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Specific cytopathologic changes represent an important tool for the identification of a viral infection. After primary infection, generally during childhood, BK and JC polyomaviruses often remain latent within the urinary tract and can reactivate along life. These reactivations are usually encountered in immunosuppressed patients. In renal transplanted recipients, BK virus may cause a polyomavirus nephropathy inducing sometimes graft loss. A good morphologic sign of reactivation is characterized by the shedding in urine of viral-infected cells called decoy cells. The latter are easily identified in urine from renal transplanted patients but in other circumstances, they may be misdiagnosed as high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. Correct cytological identification of decoy cells, confirmation of the diagnosis by urine PCR analysis and use of immunocytochemistry with anti-SV40 antibody are of good value for differential diagnosis in most cases. However, polyomavirus reactivation and urothelial carcinoma cells may be observed in the same urine specimen. The possible involvement of BK or JC virus in the pathogenesis of human urogenital tumors has been suggested by some studies but is not yet conclusively resolved.Annales de Pathologie 06/2010; 30(3):176-181. DOI:10.1016/j.annpat.2010.02.003 · 0.29 Impact Factor