Degradation products of extracellular matrix affect cell migration and proliferation.
ABSTRACT Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are utilized in numerous regenerative medicine applications to facilitate the constructive remodeling of tissues and organs. The mechanisms by which the host remodeling response occurs are not fully understood, but recent studies suggest that both constituent growth factors and biologically active degradation products derived from ECM play important roles. The objective of the present study was to determine if degradation of ECM scaffold materials in vitro by methods that are biochemically and physiologically relevant can yield products that possess chemotactic and/or mitogenic activities for fully differentiated mammalian endothelial cells and undifferentiated multipotential progenitor cells. ECM harvested from porcine urinary bladder was degraded enzymatically with pepsin/hydrochloric acid or papain. The ECM degradation products were tested for chemoattractant properties utilizing either 48-well chemotaxis filter migration microchambers or fluorescence-based filter migration assays, and were tested for mitogenic properties in cell proliferation assays. Results showed that ECM degradation products possessed chemotactic and mitogenic activities for multipotential progenitor cells and that the same degradation products inhibited both chemotaxis and proliferation of differentiated endothelial cells. These findings support the concept that degradation products of ECM bioscaffolds are important modulators of the recruitment and proliferation of appropriate cell types during the process of ECM scaffold remodeling.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world. The replacement of damaged vessels and valves has been practiced since the 1950's. Synthetic grafts, usually made of bio-inert materials, are long-lasting and mechanically relevant, but fail when it comes to "biointegration". Decellularized matrices, instead, can be considered biological grafts capable of stimulating in vivo migration and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs), recruitment and differentiation of mural cells, finally, culminating in the formation of a biointegrated tissue. Decellularization protocols employ osmotic shock, ionic and non-ionic detergents, proteolitic digestions and DNase/RNase treatments; most of them effectively eliminate the cellular component, but show limitations in preserving the native structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this review, we examine the current state of the art relative to decellularization techniques and biological performance of decellularized heart, valves and big vessels. Furthermore, we focus on the relevance of ECM components, native and resulting from decellularization, in mediating in vivo host response and determining repair and regeneration, as opposed to graft corruption.01/2014; 3(1):1-20.
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ABSTRACT: Current extracellular matrix (ECM) derived scaffolds offer promising regenerative responses in many settings, however in some applications there may be a desire for more robust and long lasting mechanical properties. A biohybrid composite material that offers both strength and bioactivity for optimal healing towards native tissue behavior may offer a solution to this problem. A regionally distinct biocomposite scaffold composed of a biodegradable elastomer (poly(ester urethane)urea) and porcine dermal ECM gel was generated to meet this need by a concurrent polymer electrospinning/ECM gel electrospraying technique where the electrosprayed component was varied temporally during the processing. A sandwich structure was achieved with polymer fiber rich upper and lower layers for structural support and an ECM-rich inner layer to encourage cell ingrowth. Increasing the upper and lower layer fiber content predictably increased tensile strength. In a rat full thickness abdominal wall defect model, the sandwich scaffold design maintained its thickness whereas control biohybrid scaffolds lacking the upper and lower fiber-rich regions failed at 8 weeks. Sandwich scaffold implants also showed higher collagen content 4 and 8 weeks after implantation, exhibited an increased M2 macrophage phenotype response at later times and developed biaxial mechanical properties better approximating native tissue. By employing a processing approach that creates a sheet-form scaffold with regionally distinct zones, it was possible to improve biological outcomes in body wall repair and provide the means for further tuning scaffold mechanical parameters when targeting other applications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 12/2013; DOI:10.1002/term.1834 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of mammalian tissues has been isolated, decellularized and utilised as a scaffold to facilitate the repair and reconstruction of numerous tissues. Recent studies have suggested that superior function and complex tissue formation occurred when ECM scaffolds were derived from site specific homologous tissues compared to heterologous tissues. The objectives of the present study were to apply a stringent decellularization process to demineralized bone matrix (DBM), prepared from bovine bone, and to characterise the structure and composition of the resulting ECM materials and DBM itself. Additionally, we sought to produce a soluble form of DBM and ECM which could be induced to form a hydrogel. Current clinical delivery of DBM particles for treatment of bone defects requires incorporation of the particles within a carrier liquid. Differences in osteogenic activity, inflammation and nephrotoxicity have been reported with various carrier liquids. The use of hydrogel forms of DBM or ECM may reduce the need for carrier liquids. DBM and ECM hydrogels exhibited sigmoidal gelation kinetics consistent with a nucleation and growth mechanism, with ECM hydrogels characterised by lower storage moduli than the DBM hydrogels. Enhanced proliferation of mouse primary calvarial cells was achieved on ECM hydrogels, compared to collagen type I and DBM hydrogels. These results show that DBM and ECM hydrogels have distinct structural, mechanical and biological properties and have potential for clinical delivery without the need for carrier liquids.Acta biomaterialia 04/2013; 9(8). DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2013.04.029 · 5.68 Impact Factor