The recent growth in the volume of civilian blast trauma caused by terrorist bombings warrants special attention to the specific pattern of injury associated with such attacks.
To characterize the abdominal injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and to compare the pattern of injury with civilian, penetrating and blunt, abdominal trauma.
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 181 patients with abdominal trauma requiring laparotomy, who were admitted to the Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel, from October 2000 to December 2005. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to mechanism of injury: terror-related blast injury (n = 21), gunshot wounds (GSW) (n = 73) and blunt trauma (n = 87).
Median injury severity score in the blast group was significantly higher compared with GSW and blunt groups (34, 18, and 29, respectively, P < 0.0001). Injury to multiple body regions (> or = 3) occurred in 85.7% of blast group, 28.8% of GSW group, and 59.7% of blunt group (P < 0.001). The pattern of intra-abdominal injury was different between the groups. Bowel injury was found in 71.4% of blast victims, 64.4% of GSW, and 25.3% of blunt group (P < 0.001). Parenchymal injury was found in one third of patients in blast and GSW groups versus 60.9% of patients in blunt group (P = 0.001). Penetrating shrapnel was the cause of bowel injury in all but 1 patient in the blast group (94.4%).
Terrorist attacks generate more severe injuries to more body regions than other types of trauma. Abdominal injury inflicted by terrorist bombings causes a unique pattern of wounds, mainly injury to hollow organs. Shrapnel is the leading cause of abdominal injury following terrorist bombings.
"Penetrating injuries caused by flying debris and shrapnel are present in more than 85% of patients [12,17]. We have previously analyzed predictors for severe injuries requiring more urgent care such as severe BLI and intra-abdominal injury [18,19]. Our past experience has shown that among patients admitted to the ED, injury to four or more body regions, and the presence of penetrating head and torso injuries are predictors of BLI and intra-abdominal injury, respectively [16,20]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Critical hospital resources, especially the demand for ICU beds, are usually limited following mass casualty incidents such as suicide bombing attacks (SBA). Our primary objective was to identify easily diagnosed external signs of injury that will serve as indicators of the need for ICU admission. Our secondary objective was to analyze under- and over-triage following suicidal bombing attacks.
A database was collected prospectively from patients who were admitted to Hadassah University Hospital Level I Trauma Centre, Jerusalem, Israel from August 2001-August 2005 following a SBA. One hundred and sixty four victims of 17 suicide bombing attacks were divided into two groups according to ICU and non-ICU admission.
There were 86 patients in the ICU group (52.4%) and 78 patients in the non-ICU group (47.6%). Patients in the ICU group required significantly more operating room time compared with patients in the non-ICU group (59.3% vs. 25.6%, respectively, p=0.0003). For the ICU group, median ICU stay was 4 days (IQR 2 to 8.25 days). On multivariable analysis only the presence of facial fractures (p=0.014), peripheral vascular injury (p=0.015), injury≥4 body areas (p=0.002) and skull fractures (p=0.017) were found to be independent predictors of the need for ICU admission. Sixteen survivors (19.5%) in the ICU group were admitted to the ICU for one day only (ICU-LOS=1) and were defined as over-triaged. Median ISS for this group was significantly lower compared with patients who were admitted to the ICU for >1 day (ICU-LOS>1). This group of over-triaged patients could not be distinguished from the other ICU patients based on external signs of trauma. None of the patients in the non-ICU group were subsequently transferred to the ICU.
Our results show that following SBA, injury to ≥4 areas, and certain types of injuries such as facial and skull fractures, and peripheral vascular injury, can serve as surrogates of severe trauma and the need for ICU admission. Over-triage rates following SBA can be limited by a concerted, focused plan implemented by dedicated personnel and by the liberal utilization of imaging studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 03/2012; 20:19. DOI:10.1186/1757-7241-20-19 · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article is part of a collaborative effort by experts in the field of emergency preparedness to com- plete an overview begun by the late Michael Shannon, MD, MPH, on the current challenges and future direc- tions in pediatric disaster readi- ness. This particular article, "Preparation for Terrorist Threats: Explosive Devices," will promote a greater awareness of explosive de- vices as significant terrorism threat and pertinent clinical considera- tions in caring for pediatric victims of explosive injury.
Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine 09/2009; 10(3):140-143. DOI:10.1016/j.cpem.2009.07.008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The worldwide escalation in the volume of suicide terrorist bombing attacks warrants special attention to the specific pattern of injury associated with such attacks. The goal of this study was to characterize thoracic injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and compare pattern of injury to penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma.
Prospectively collected database of patients with chest injury who were admitted to Hadassah Hospital Level I trauma centre, in Jerusalem, Israel, from October 2000 to December 2005. Patients were divided into three groups according to the mechanism of injury: terrorist explosions (n = 55), gunshot wounds (GSW; n = 78), and blunt trauma (n = 747).
There were many female victims after suicide bombing attacks (49.1%) compared with GSW (21.8%) and blunt trauma (24.6%; p = 0.009). The number of body regions injured was significantly higher in the terror group compared with the GSW and blunt groups (median, 4, 2, and 3, respectively, p < 0.0001). The pattern of chest injury after suicide bombing attacks was caused by a unique combination of the effects of the blast wave and penetrating shrapnel. More than half (52.7%) of the terror victims suffered from lung contusion and 25 (45.5%) required tube thoracostomy. Five patients (9.1%) underwent thoracotomy for lung lacerations (n = 3), injury to great vessels (n = 2), cardiac lacerations (n = 1), and esophageal injury (n = 1). Penetrating shrapnel was the mechanism of injury in all these cases.
Injury inflicted by terrorist bombings causes a unique pattern of thoracic wounds. Victims are exposed to a combination of lung injury caused by the blast wave and penetrating injury caused by metallic objects.
The Journal of trauma 11/2010; 69(5):1022-8; discussion 1028-9. DOI:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181f35c71 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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