Amyloid precursor protein trafficking, processing, and function.
ABSTRACT Intracellular trafficking and proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) have been the focus of numerous investigations over the past two decades. APP is the precursor to the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), the 38-43-amino acid residue peptide that is at the heart of the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Tremendous progress has been made since the initial identification of Abeta as the principal component of brain senile plaques of individuals with AD. Specifically, molecular characterization of the secretases involved in Abeta production has facilitated cell biological investigations on APP processing and advanced efforts to model AD pathogenesis in animal models. This minireview summarizes salient features of APP trafficking and amyloidogenic processing and discusses the putative biological functions of APP.
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ABSTRACT: C99 is the C-terminal membrane-bound fragment of the amyloid precursor protein that is cleaved by γ-secretase to release Aβ peptides, the hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Specific interactions of C99 with cholesterol have been proposed to underlie the recognized role of cholesterol in promoting amyloidogenesis. By using molecular dynamics simulations, we studied cholesterol binding to C99 in a lipid bilayer. We determined the free-energy profile of binding and analyzed the structure of C99/cholesterol complexes in two low-energy binding modes. We also examined the complexation driving forces and found, unexpectedly, that the interactions between the GxxxG dimerization motif and the cholesterol ring system are not sufficient for binding and that further stabilization mediated by the C99 N-terminal domain is essential. Taken together, our results strongly support the view that C99 specifically binds cholesterol in the cell membrane; the detailed information on the structure and energetics of the complex may assist in the design of new anti-AD drugs.Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 02/2015; 5(5):784–790. DOI:10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00197 · 6.69 Impact Factor
Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2013; 9(4):P328. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.04.171 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Compromised secretory function of choroid plexus (CP) and defective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production, along with accumulation of beta-amyloid (Ab) peptides at the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), contribute to complications of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The AD triple transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD) at 16 month-old mimics critical hallmarks of the human disease: b-amyloid (Ab) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) with a temporal- and regional- specific profile. Currently, little is known about transport and metabolic responses by CP to the disrupted homeostasis of CNS Ab in AD. This study analyzed the effects of highly-expressed AD-linked human transgenes (APP, PS1 and tau) on lateral ventricle CP function. Confocal imaging and immunohistochemistry revealed an increase only of Ab42 isoform in epithelial cytosol and in stroma surrounding choroidal capillaries; this buildup may reflect insufficient clearance transport from CSF to blood. Still, there was increased expression, presumably compensatory, of the choroidal Ab transporters: the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE). A thickening of the epithelial basal membrane and greater collagen-IV deposition occurred around capillaries in CP, probably curtailing solute exchanges. Moreover, there was attenuated expression of epithelial aquaporin-1 and transthyretin (TTR) protein compared to Non-Tg mice. Collectively these findings indicate CP dysfunction hypothetically linked to increasing Ab burden resulting in less efficient ion transport, concurrently with reduced production of CSF (less sink action on brain Ab) and diminished secretion of TTR (less neuroprotection against cortical Ab toxicity). The putative effects of a disabled CP-CSF system on CNS functions are discussed in the context of AD.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 02/2015; 9(17). DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00017 · 4.18 Impact Factor