Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer managment

Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92612, USA.
Medical Physics (Impact Factor: 2.64). 06/2008; 35(6):2443-51. DOI: 10.1118/1.2919078
Source: PubMed


Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a noninvasive optical technique that employs near-infrared (NIR) light to quantitatively characterize the optical properties of thick tissues. Although NIR methods were first applied to breast transillumination (also called diaphanography) nearly 80 years ago, quantitative DOI methods employing time- or frequency-domain photon migration technologies have only recently been used for breast imaging (i.e., since the mid-1990s). In this review, the state of the art in DOI for breast cancer is outlined and a multi-institutional Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) is described, which has been formed by the National Cancer Institute to advance diffuse optical spectroscopy and imaging (DOSI) for the purpose of improving breast cancer detection and clinical management. DOSI employs broadband technology both in near-infrared spectral and temporal signal domains in order to separate absorption from scattering and quantify uptake of multiple molecular probes based on absorption or fluorescence contrast. Additional dimensionality in the data is provided by integrating and co-registering the functional information of DOSI with x-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide structural information or vascular flow information, respectively. Factors affecting DOSI performance, such as intrinsic and extrinsic contrast mechanisms, quantitation of biochemical components, image formation/visualization, and multimodality co-registration are under investigation in the ongoing research NTROI sites. One of the goals is to develop standardized DOSI platforms that can be used as stand-alone devices or in conjunction with MRI, mammography, or ultrasound. This broad-based, multidisciplinary effort is expected to provide new insight regarding the origins of breast disease and practical approaches for addressing several key challenges in breast cancer, including: Detecting disease in mammographically dense tissue, distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions, and understanding the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapies.

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Article: Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer managment

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    • "See for more information. with magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles has been proposed in conjunction with FMT [20]–[24]. While FMT can benefit from the excellent soft-tissue contrast of MRI, realization of hybrid FMT-MRI systems is limited due to several technical challenges [23], [25], [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The implementation of hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a necessary development, not only for combining anatomical with functional and molecular contrast, but also for generating optical images of high fidelity and quantification accuracy. FMT affords highly sensitive three-dimensional imaging of fluorescence bio-distribution throughout animal bodies but in stand-alone form it offers images of low resolution. It was shown that FMT accuracy significantly improves by considering anatomical priors from X-ray computed tomography (CT). Conversely, X-ray CT generally suffers from low soft tissue contrast. Therefore utilization of X-ray CT data as prior information to the fluorescence inversion problem is challenging in applications where different internal organs are not clearly differentiated. Instead, we combined herein FMT with emerging X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT). PCCT relies on the phase shift differences in tissue to deliver anatomical images of biological samples with superior soft tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based CT. We demonstrate for the first time hybrid FMT-PCCT imaging of different animal models, where FMT and PCCT scans were performed in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The results show that FMT-PCCT expands the potential and utility of FMT in imaging lesions which show otherwise low or no contrast in conventional CT, while retaining the cost benefits and technical simplicity of CT and single hybrid devices. The results point to the most accurate hybrid FMT performance to date.
    IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 03/2014; 33(7). DOI:10.1109/TMI.2014.2313405 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    • "Fiber-coupled illumination and photo-detection have been adopted since the very early stage of development of diffuse optics and are still being widely used. It can be found in diffuse optical tomography (DOT), fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT), and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the human brain [12, 13, 14], human breast [15, 16, 17], and small animals [18, 19, 20, 21]. The fiber optics can be in direct contact with the surface of imaging subject or in indirect contact via optical matching fluid. "
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    Photonics 03/2014; 1(1):9-32. DOI:10.3390/photonics1010009
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    • "Tumor angiogenesis is a vital process in the early phases of cancer progression [1-3]. Of late, functional imaging using near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) has been used to develop noninvasive measurements for detection of primary breast cancer [4-6]. NIR time-resolved DOS (NIR–TRS) systems are portable, have high data acquisition rates, and can detect variations in photon transit times resulting from varying levels of oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), which characterize optical properties of the tissue in terms of absorption coefficient (μa) and decreased scattering coefficient (μs’) [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Near-infrared optical imaging targeting the intrinsic contrast of tissue hemoglobin has emerged as a promising approach for visualization of vascularity in cancer research. We evaluated the usefulness of diffuse optical spectroscopy using time-resolved spectroscopic (TRS) measurements for functional imaging of primary breast cancer. Fifty-five consecutive TNM stageI/II patients with histologically proven invasive ductal carcinoma and operable breast tumors (<5 cm) who underwent TRS measurements were enrolled. Thirty (54.5%) patients underwent 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with measurement of maximum tumor uptake. TRS was used to obtain oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin (tHb) levels from the lesions, surrounding normal tissue, and contralateral normal tissue. Lesions with tHb levels 20% higher than those present in normal tissue were defined as "hotspots," while others were considered "uniform." The findings in either tumor type were compared with clinicopathological factors. "Hotspot" tumors were significantly larger (P = 0.002) and exhibited significantly more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.01), higher mitotic counts (P = 0.01) and higher levels of FDG uptake (P = 0.0004) compared with "uniform" tumors; however, other pathological variables were not significantly different between the two groups. Optical imaging for determination of tHb levels allowed for measurement of tumor vascularity as a function of proliferation and glucose metabolism, which may be useful for prediction of patient prognosis and potential response to treatment.
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