Helicobacter pylori infection and motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection affects the clinical response to levodopa and whether its eradication could improve motor fluctuation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Using the [(13)C] urea breath test, we monitored HP infection in 65 patients with PD and motor fluctuations of the "wearing-off" or delayed "on" types, with or without dyskinesia. We compared the clinical features and response to L-dopa between HP noninfected (n = 30) and HP infected patients (n = 35) by reviewing home diaries kept for 72 hours. Among HP infected patients, we compared the differences in L-dopa "onset" time, "on-time" duration, and scores on the motor examination section of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) during the medication "on" phase before and after HP eradication. There were no differences in the age, disease duration, Hoehn and Yahr stage, UPDRS-III score, L-dopa daily dose, and frequency of dyskinesia between HP noninfected and HP infected groups. However, L-dopa "onset" time was longer and "on-time" duration was shorter in HP infected patients than in HP noninfected patients (78.4 +/- 28.2 vs. 56.7 +/- 25.1 and 210.0 +/- 75.7 vs. 257.7 +/- 68.9 min, respectively, P < 0.05). HP eradication improved the delay L-dopa "onset" time and short "on-time" duration (to 58.1 +/- 25.6 and to 234.4 +/- 66.5 min, respectively, P < 0.05). These data demonstrated that HP infection could interfere with the absorption of L-dopa and provoke motor fluctuations. HP eradication can improve the motor fluctuations of HP infected patients with PD.
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ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an extremely common, yet underappreciated, pathogen that is able to alter host physiology and subvert the host immune response, allowing it to persist for the life of the host. H. pylori is the primary cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In the United States, the annual cost associated with peptic ulcer disease is estimated to be $6 billion and gastric cancer kills over 700000 people per year globally. The prevalence of H. pylori infection remains high (> 50%) in much of the world, although the infection rates are dropping in some developed nations. The drop in H. pylori prevalence could be a double-edged sword, reducing the incidence of gastric diseases while increasing the risk of allergies and esophageal diseases. The list of diseases potentially caused by H. pylori continues to grow; however, mechanistic explanations of how H. pylori could contribute to extragastric diseases lag far behind clinical studies. A number of host factors and H. pylori virulence factors act in concert to determine which individuals are at the highest risk of disease. These include bacterial cytotoxins and polymorphisms in host genes responsible for directing the immune response. This review discusses the latest advances in H. pylori pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Up-to-date information on correlations between H. pylori and extragastric diseases is also provided.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 09/2014; 20(36):12781-12808.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to controls. H. pylori infection affects levodopa absorption and its eradication significantly improves clinical response to levodopa. Here, we studied the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its eradication effects among our PD patients. A prospective study involving idiopathic PD patients on levodopa therapy. 13C-urea breath test (UBT) was used to detect H. pylori. UBT-positive patients were given standard eradication therapy and followed up at 6 and 12 weeks in an open label single arm design. Repeat UBT was performed at 12 weeks. The UPDRS, PD NMQ, PD NMSS and PDQ-39 were administered at baseline and post-eradication (6 and 12 weeks). Levodopa 'onset' time and ON-duration were recorded. Of 82 patients recruited, 27 (32.9%) had positive UBT. H. pylori-positive patients had significantly poorer total UPDRS (p = 0.005) and PDQ39 (p<0.0001) scores compared to H. pylori-negative patients. At 12 weeks post-eradication, the mean levodopa onset time shortened by 14 minutes (p = 0.011). The mean ON duration time increased by 56 minutes at week 6 (p = 0.041) and 38 minutes at week 12 (p = 0.035). The total UPDRS scores (p<0.0001), scores for parts II (p = 0.001), III (p<0.0001) and IV (p = 0.009) were significantly better. The total PDQ-39 scores (p = 0.001) and subdomains mobility (p = 0.002), ADL (p = 0.001), emotional well being (p = 0.026) and stigma (p = 0.034) significantly improved. The PD NMSQ did not show significant improvement. H. pylori eradication improved levodopa onset time, ON duration, motor severity and quality of life parameters. Screening and eradication of H. pylori is inexpensive and should be recommended in PD patients, particularly those with erratic response to levodopa. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02112812.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e112330. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to review current information about the role of inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and other inflammatory diseases including ischemic stroke. Infection with H. pylori usually persists throughout life, resulting in a chronic inflammatory response with local secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators including chemokines [interleukin (IL)-8, macrophage chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)-α] and cytokines [IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ], which can pass into the circulation and have a systemic effect. The persistence of detectable systemic and local concentrations of inflammatory mediators is likely to alter the outcome of neurological diseases. These proinflammatory factors can induce brain inflammation and the death of neurons and could eventually be associated to Parkinson's disease and also may be involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease. However, most neurological diseases are the result of a combination of multiple factors, but the systemic inflammatory response is a common component and determinant in the onset, evolution, and outcome of diseases. However, more studies are needed to allow understanding of the effects and mechanisms by which the inflammatory response generated by H. pylori infection affects neurological diseases.World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology. 11/2014; 5(4):400-4.