Urban wet environment as mosquito habitat in the upper midwest.
ABSTRACT Sampling of Culex larval habitat plays an important role in West Nile virus surveillance and control programs. Although many cities have established mosquito sampling programs and abatement districts, there is relatively little information describing the extent and ecology of urban surface waters and stormwater systems in different geographic areas and how these parameters affect mosquito communities and control strategies. An aerial survey of the city of Madison, Wisconsin revealed 521 above-ground wet sites. These included both constructed stormwater systems (ditches, retention ponds, detention ponds) and natural wetlands (marshes, flood areas, creeks, and rivers). Repeat sampling of 351 of these sites was conducted during 2004 and 2005. The majority of sites, 58% in 2004 and 72% in 2005, yielded no mosquito larvae, suggesting that physical and biological features of these wet sites limit the development of mosquito larvae. For both years, analysis of the positive samples revealed that less than 25% of sites produced Culex spp. while a small number of ditches and detention ponds were consistent "superproducers" of Culex larvae from year to year. This information will facilitate comparisons across geographical areas and provides insight into local variation in the public health risk due to mosquito transmission of human disease agents.
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ABSTRACT: The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzyme-based assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0%), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for > 1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions.Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 03/2010; 26(1):24-31. · 0.91 Impact Factor
Article: The need for collaboration among government agencies to reduce mosquito production in mandated stormwater treatment structures.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Efforts to improve water quality increasingly rely on structural stormwater best management practices (BMPs) to remove pollutants from urban runoff. These structures can unintentionally produce mosquitoes and may play a role in the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. A questionnaire was distributed to over 300 stormwater and mosquito control agencies in the United States to assess the prevalence of BMPs and associated mosquito production, identify current measures to control mosquitoes within BMPs, and elucidate the extent of collaboration between these agencies. Responses suggest that agencies often lack basic information relevant to minimizing mosquitoes in BMPs, such as the number of structures within an agency's jurisdiction and the frequency of their maintenance, and that greater interagency collaboration could improve control efforts. Approximately 40% of agencies reported regular collaboration to minimize mosquito production in BMPs; however, barriers to such collaborative work included confusion over roles and responsibilities and a lack of interest. The rapid increase of BMPs in urban environments resulting from increasingly stringent water-quality regulations provides justification for increased collaboration between stormwater and mosquito control sectors of government to aid and strengthen public health efforts.Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 06/2010; 26(2):198-204. · 0.91 Impact Factor
Article: Regional differences in the association between land cover and West Nile virus disease incidence in humans in the United States.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV) is generally considered to be an urban pathogen in the United States, but studies associating land cover and disease incidence, seroprevalence, or infection rate in humans, birds, domesticated and wild mammals, and mosquitoes report varying and sometimes contradictory results at an array of spatial extents. Human infection can provide insight about basic transmission activity; therefore, we analyzed data on the incidence of WNV disease in humans to obtain a comprehensive picture of how human disease and land cover type are associated across the United States. Human WNV disease incidence in Northeastern regions was positively associated with urban land covers, whereas incidence in the Western United States was positively associated with agricultural land covers. We suggest that these regional associations are explained by the geographic distributions of prominent WNV vectors: Culex pipiens complex (including Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus) in the Northeast and Cx. tarsalis in the Western United States.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 02/2011; 84(2):234-8. · 2.59 Impact Factor