"The second most prevalent genetic element associated with bla CTX-M genes is the ISCR1 element, formerly known as the orf513-common region, which is normally found within the backbone of unusual or complex class 1 integrons  . The ISCR1 element is usually located upstream of bla CTX-M genes and has been found associated with bla CTX-M-2, and bla CTX-M-59 from group 2     , (GenBank EU622856) and bla CTX-M-9 and bla CTX-M -14 from group 9    , and bla CTX-M-1 from group 1 . Structures harboring ISCR1-associated integrons are usually related to Tn402 derivatives, and sometimes linked with Tn21 or Tn1696 transposons. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early after the introduction of the first (narrow spectrum) penicillins into clinical use, penicillinase-producing staphylococci replaced (worldwide) the previously susceptible microorganisms. Similarly, the extensive use of broad-spectrum, orally administered β-lactams (like ampicillin, amoxicillin or cefalexin) provided a favorable scenario for the selection of gram-negative microorganisms producing broad spectrum β-lactamases almost 45 years ago. These microorganisms could be controlled by the introduction of the so called "extended spectrum cephalosporins". However, overuse of these drugs resulted, after a few years, in the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) through point mutations in the existing broad-spectrum β-lactamases, such as TEM and SHV enzymes. Overuse of extended-spectrum β-lactams also gave rise to chromosomal mutations in regulatory genes which resulted in the overproduction of chromosomal AmpC genes, and, in other regions of the world, in the explosive emergence of other ESBL families, like the CTX-Ms. Carbapenems remained active on microorganisms harboring these extended-spectrum β-lactamases, while both carbapenems and fourth generation cephalosporins remained active towards those with derepressed (or the more recent plasmidic) AmpCs. However, microorganisms countered this assault by the emergence of the so called carbapenemases (both serine- and metallo- enzymes) which, in some cases, are actually capable of hydrolyzing almost all β-lactams including the carbapenems. Although all these enzyme families (some of them represented by hundreds of members) are for sure pre-dating the antibiotic era in environmental and clinically significant microorganisms, it was the misuse of these antibiotics that drove their evolution. This paper describes in detail each major class of β-lactamase including epidemiology, genetic, and biochemical evaluations.
Current pharmaceutical design 08/2012; 19(2). DOI:10.2174/13816128130202 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herbaspirillum species, colonized the plant rhizosphere, also called rhizobacteria, are plant growth-promoting bacteria. Recently we isolated Herbaspirillum from blood cultures of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and identified by PCR and gene sequencing. Herbaspirillum may be a potential pathogenic bacteria. Although the exact role that these species play in ALL patients is unknown, their differentiation from other species has serious implications for clinical care and patient well-being.
Current Microbiology 01/2011; 62(1):331-3. DOI:10.1007/s00284-010-9703-5 · 1.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CTX-M enzymes, the plasmid-mediated cefotaximases, constitute a rapidly growing family of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) with significant clinical impact. CTX-Ms are found in at least 26 bacterial species, particularly in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. At least 109 members in CTX-M family are identified and can be divided into seven clusters based on their phylogeny. CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 are the most dominant variants. Chromosome-encoded intrinsic cefotaximases in Kluyvera spp. are proposed to be the progenitors of CTX-Ms, while ISEcp1, ISCR1 and plasmid are closely associated with their mobilization and dissemination.
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