Rapid decline in prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis after DOTS implementation in a rural area of South India.
ABSTRACT Tiruvallur District in Tamilnadu, South India, where the World Health Organization-recommended DOTS strategy was implemented as a tuberculosis (TB) control measure in 1999.
To assess the epidemiological impact of the DOTS strategy on the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).
Surveys of PTB were undertaken on representative population samples aged > or =15 years (n = 83000-90000), before and at 2.5 and 5 years after the implementation of the DOTS strategy. The prevalence of PTB (smear-positive/culture-positive) was estimated.
TB prevalence declined by about 50% in 5 years, from 609 to 311 per 100000 population for culture-positive TB and from 326 to 169/100000 for smear-positive TB. The annual rate of decline was 12.6% (95%CI 11.2-14.0) for culture-positive TB and 12.3% (95%CI 8.6-15.8) for smear-positive TB. The decline was similar at all ages and for both sexes.
With an efficient case detection programme and the DOTS strategy, it is feasible to bring about a substantial reduction in the burden of TB in the community.
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ABSTRACT: In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 482 TB suspects were identified and smear microscopy and culture was done for 428 TB suspects. Counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS was done for all TB suspects. Spoligotyping was done to characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Majority of the TB suspects were females (60.7%) and non-literates (83.6%). Using smear microscopy, a total of 5 new and 4 old cases of pulmonary TB cases were identified making the prevalence of TB 30 per 100,000. However, using the culture method, we identified 17 new cases with a prevalence of 76.1 per 100,000. There were 4.3 undiagnosed pulmonary TB cases for every TB case who was diagnosed through the passive case detection mechanism in the health facility. Eleven isolates (64.7%) belonged to the six previously known spoligotypes: T, Haarlem and Central-Asian (CAS). Six new spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not present in the international database (SpolDB4) were identified. None of the rural residents was HIV infected and only 5 (5.5%) of the urban TB suspects were positive for HIV. The prevalence of TB in the rural community of Southwest Ethiopia is low. There are large numbers of undiagnosed TB cases in the community. However, the number of sputum smear-positive cases was very low and therefore the risk of transmitting the infection to others may be limited. Active case finding through health extension workers in the community can improve the low case detection rate in Ethiopia. A large scale study on the genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia is crucial to understand transmission dynamics, identification of drug resistant strains and design preventive strategies.BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 12:54. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Phase II (2006-2012) of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has been successful in achieving its objectives. Tuberculosis (TB) disease burden (prevalence and mortality) in India has reduced significantly when compared to 1990 levels, and India is on track to achieve the TB related millennium development goals. Despite significant progress, TB still continues to be one of the major public health problems in the country, and intensified efforts are required to reduce TB transmission and accelerate reductions in TB incidence, particularly in urban areas and difficult terrains. Achieving 'Universal access' is possible and necessary for the country. RNTCP during the 12 th Five Year Plan (2012-2017) aims to achieve 'Universal access' to quality assured TB diagnosis and treatment and elaborate plans are being made. This requires broad and concerted efforts and support from all stakeholders with substantial enhancement of commitment and financing at all levels. This paper describes the new vision of RNTCP and an overview of how this will be achieved.The Indian Journal of Medical Research 05/2012; 135(5):690-4. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With changing demographic patterns in the context of a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country, like India, there is very little information on the clinical and demographic factors associated with poor treatment outcome in the sub-group of older TB patients. The study aimed to assess the proportion of older TB patients (60 years of age and more), to compare the type of TB and treatment outcomes between older TB patients and other TB patients (less than 60 years of age) and to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of older TB patients and assess any associations with TB treatment outcomes. A retrospective cohort study involving a review of records from April to June 2011 in the 12 selected districts of Tamilnadu, India. Demographic, clinical and WHO defined disease classifications and treatment outcomes of all TB patients aged 60 years and above were extracted from TB registers maintained routinely by Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP). Older TB patients accounted for 14% of all TB patients, of whom 47% were new sputum positive. They had 38% higher risk of unfavourable treatment outcomes as compared to all other TB patients (Relative risk (RR)-1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6). Among older TB patients, the risk for unfavourable treatment outcomes was higher for those aged 70 years and more (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9), males (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.1), re-treatment patients (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9-3.2) and those who received community-based Direct Observed Treatment (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Treatment outcomes were poor in older TB patients warranting special attention to this group - including routine assessment and recording of co-morbidities, a dedicated recording, reporting and monitoring of outcomes for this age-group and collaboration with National programme of non-communicable diseases for comprehensive management of co-morbidities.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e67288. · 3.53 Impact Factor