Increased chemotactic migration and growth in heparanase-overexpressing human U251n glioma cells

Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health Science Center, Detroit, MI, USA.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 3.27). 07/2008; 27(1):23. DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-27-23
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate, the main polysaccharide constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basement membrane. Expression of the heparanase gene is associated with the invasion and metastatic potential of a variety of tumor-derived cell types. However, the roles of heparanase in the regulation of gene expression and the subsequent cell function changes other than invasion are not clear. In the current study, we overexpressed the human heparanase gene in a human U251n glioma cell line. We found that heparanase-overexpression significantly increased cell invasion, proliferation, anchorage-independent colony formation and chemotactic migration towards fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplied medium and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). These phenotypic appearances were accompanied by enhanced protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) signaling were not altered by heparanase-overexpression. These results indicate that heparanase has pleiotropic effects on tumor cells.

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    ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that the CXC-chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 induces proliferation, migration, and invasion of the Huh7 human hepatoma cells through its G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are involved in these events. Here, we demonstrate by surface plasmon resonance that the chemokine binds to GAG mimetics obtained by grafting carboxylate, sulfate or acetate groups onto a dextran backbone. We also demonstrate that chemically modified dextrans inhibit SDF-1/CXCL12-mediated in vitro chemotaxis and anchorage-independent cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. The binding of GAG mimetics to the chemokine and their effects in modulating the SDF-1/CXCL12 biological activities are mainly related to the presence of sulfate groups. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of enzymes involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis, such as exostosin-1 and -2 or N-deacetylase N-sulfotransferases remained unchanged, but heparanase mRNA and protein expressions in Huh7 cells were decreased upon GAG mimetic treatment. Moreover, decreasing heparanase-1 mRNA levels by RNA interference significantly reduced SDF-1/CXCL12-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggest that GAG mimetic effects on SDF-1/CXCL12-mediated hepatoma cell chemotaxis may rely on decreased heparanase expression, which impairs SDF-1/CXCL12's signaling. Altogether, these data suggest that GAG mimetics may compete with cellular heparan sulfate chains for the binding to SDF-1/CXCL12 and may affect heparanase expression, leading to reduced SDF-1/CXCL12 mediated in vitro chemotaxis and growth of hepatoma cells.
    Glycobiology 09/2009; 19(12):1511-24. DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwp130 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian heparanase has been shown to function in tumor progression, invasion, and angiogenesis. However, heparanase expression in gliomas has not been well analyzed. To clarify its expression in gliomas, human glioma tissues and glioma animal models were investigated. The expression of heparanase mRNA was determined in 33 resected human glioma tissues by semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Heparanase expression was verified with a Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. Primary neurospheres from human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) were developed in vitro. Heparanase expression in murine astrocytoma and human primary neurosphere animal models was examined using IHC. The authors found that heparanase mRNA is greatly increased in gliomas including oligodendroglioma (9 samples), anaplastic astrocytoma (11 samples), and GBM (13 samples) as compared with healthy brain mRNA (3 samples). Note, however, that no significant difference was observed among the 3 tumor groups. Increased heparanase expression was also found in tumor tissues on Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated that heparanase was expressed by neovessel endothelial cells, infiltrated neutrophils, and in some cases, by neoplastic cells. Heparanase-expressing cells, including GBM tumor cells and neovessel endothelial cells, exhibited decreased expression of CD44, a cell adhesion molecule on the cell membrane that is important for regulating tumor invasion. In addition, heparanase-expressing tumor cells showed an elevated density of the cell proliferation marker Ki 67, as compared with its density in non-heparanase-expressing tumor cells, suggesting that heparanase expression is correlated with enhanced tumor proliferation. Two animal glioma models were tested for heparanase expression. Both murine astrocytoma cells (Ast11.9-2) and cultured primary human GBM neurospheres expressed heparanase when grown in animal brain tissue. Glioma tissues contain increased levels of heparanase. Multiple cell types contribute to the expression of heparanase, including neovessel endothelial cells, tumor cells, and infiltrated neutrophils. Heparanase plays an important role in the control of cell proliferation and invasion. Animal models using Ast11.9-2 and primary neurospheres are suitable for antitumor studies targeting heparanase.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2009; 113(2):261-9. DOI:10.3171/2009.9.JNS09682 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stromal tissue regulates the development and differentiation of breast epithelial cells, with adipocytes being the main stromal cell type. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of adipocyte differentiation on proliferation and migration, as well as to assess the activity of heparanase and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), in normal (NMuMG) and tumoral (LM3) murine breast epithelial cells. NMuMG and LM3 cells were grown on irradiated 3T3-L1 cells (stromal support, SS) at various degrees of differentiation [preadipocytes (preA), poorly differentiated adipocytes (pDA) and mature adipocytes (MA)] and/or were incubated in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) derived from each of these three types of differentiated cells. Cells grown on a plastic support or in fresh medium served as the controls. Cell proliferation was measured with a commercial colorimetric kit, and the motility of the epithelial cells was evaluated by means of a wound-healing assay. Heparanase activity was assessed by quantifying heparin degradation, and the expression of MMP-9 was determined using Western blotting. The results indicate that cell proliferation was increased after 24 and 48 h in the NMuMG and LM3 cells grown on preA, pDA and MA SS. In the NMuMG cells cultured on SS in the presence of all three types of CM, proliferation was enhanced. LM3 cell migration was increased in the presence of all three types of CM and in cells grown on preA SS. Heparanase activity was increased in the NMuMG cells incubated with all three types of CM, and in the LM3 cells incubated with the CM from pDA and MA. Both the NMuMG and LM3 cell lines presented basal expression of MMP-9; however, a significant increase in MMP-9 expression was observed in the LM3 cells incubated with each of the three types of CM. In conclusion, adipocyte differentiation influences normal and tumoral breast epithelial cell proliferation and migration. Heparanase and MMP-9 appear to be involved in this regulation. The experimental model presented in this study is in keeping with the characteristics of the physiological environment of breast epithelial cells, in terms of both the soluble and insoluble factors present and the stromal structure per se.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 05/2010; 3(3):433-9. DOI:10.3892/mmr_00000276 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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