Intra-arterial milrinone for reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

Department of Neurological Sciences, CHA (Enfant-Jésus), Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain (Impact Factor: 3.19). 01/2009; 49(1):142-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2008.01211.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) usually presents with recurrent thunderclap headaches and is characterized by multifocal and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries that can sometimes evolve to severe cerebral ischemia and stroke. We describe the case of a patient who presented with a clinically typical RCVS and developed focal neurological symptoms and signs despite oral treatment with calcium channel blockers. Within hours of neurological deterioration, she was treated with intra-arterial milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which resulted in a rapid and sustained neurological improvement.

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    ABSTRACT: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a clinical and radiologic syndrome that represents a common presentation of a diverse group of disorders. The syndrome is characterized by thunderclap headache and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, which can either be spontaneous or related to an exogenous trigger. The pathophysiology of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is unknown, though alterations in cerebral vascular tone are thought to be a key underlying mechanism. The syndrome typically follows a benign course; however, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome may result in permanent disability or death in a small minority of patients secondary to complications such as ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage. © 2015 American Society of Neuroradiology.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 01/2015; DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A4214 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 11/2014; 56(5):419-22. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.5.419 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is classically diagnosed based on the presence of severe thunderclap headache, focal neurologic symptoms, and the radiographic findings of reversible diffuse segmental cerebral vasoconstriction. We present a diagnostic test that may assist in the clinical diagnosis and facilitate treatment. From October 1, 2010, to August 1, 2013, we identified consecutive patients who presented with a presumptive diagnosis of RCVS and underwent cerebral diagnostic angiography with intra-arterial (IA) vasodilator therapy. Medical records including clinical presentation, radiographic, and angiographic images were all reviewed. We identified a total of 7 patients (4 females; age range, 22-56; mean, 45 years) who met our inclusion criteria. Four patients received a combination of milrinone and nicardipine infusion either in the internal carotid arteries or in the left vertebral artery; the remaining patients received IA therapy solely with either nicardipine or milrinone. Five patients had a positive angiographic response, defined as significant improvement or resolution of the blood vessels irregularities. All 5 patients had a definite discharge diagnosis of RCVS. The remaining 2 patients had a negative angiographic response and based on their clinical and radiographic course had a final diagnosis of intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Our small case series suggest that IA administration of vasodilators is safe and may aid in distinguishing vasodilator responsive syndromes such as RCVS from other causes. Further study is required with long-term clinical outcome to determine the utility of this diagnostic test. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.08.023 · 1.99 Impact Factor

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