Intra-arterial milrinone for reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.
ABSTRACT Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) usually presents with recurrent thunderclap headaches and is characterized by multifocal and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries that can sometimes evolve to severe cerebral ischemia and stroke. We describe the case of a patient who presented with a clinically typical RCVS and developed focal neurological symptoms and signs despite oral treatment with calcium channel blockers. Within hours of neurological deterioration, she was treated with intra-arterial milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which resulted in a rapid and sustained neurological improvement.
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ABSTRACT: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS) comprise a group of diverse conditions, all characterized by reversible multifocal narrowing of the cerebral arteries heralded by sudden (thunderclap), severe headaches with or without associated neurologic deficits. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes are clinically important because they affect young persons and can be complicated by ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. The differential diagnosis of RCVS includes conditions associated with thunderclap headache and conditions that cause irreversible or progressive cerebral artery narrowing, such as intracranial atherosclerosis and cerebral vasculitis. Misdiagnosis as primary cerebral vasculitis and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is common because of overlapping clinical and angiographic features. However, unlike these more ominous conditions, RCVS is usually self-limited: Resolution of headaches and vasoconstriction occurs over a period of days to weeks. In this review, we describe our current understanding of RCVS; summarize its key clinical, laboratory, and imaging features; and discuss strategies for diagnostic evaluation and treatment.Annals of internal medicine 02/2007; 146(1):34-44. · 13.98 Impact Factor
Article: Thunderclap headache.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thunderclap headache (TCH) is head pain that begins suddenly and is severe at onset. TCH might be the first sign of subarachnoid haemorrhage, unruptured intracranial aneurysm, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, cervical artery dissection, acute hypertensive crisis, spontaneous intracranial hypotension, ischaemic stroke, retroclival haematoma, pituitary apoplexy, third ventricle colloid cyst, and intracranial infection. Primary thunderclap headache is diagnosed when no underlying cause is discovered. Patients with TCH who have evidence of reversible, segmental, cerebral vasoconstriction of circle of Willis arteries and normal or near-normal results on cerebrospinal fluid assessment are thought to have reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Herein, we discuss the differential diagnosis of TCH, diagnostic criteria for the primary disorder, and proper assessment of patients. We also offer pathophysiological considerations for primary TCH.The Lancet Neurology 08/2006; 5(7):621-31. · 23.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thunderclap headache (TCH) refers to an excruciating headache of instantaneous onset. Recognition and accurate diagnosis of this headache are important because it can be caused by various serious underlying brain disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial hematoma, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, cervical artery dissection, ischemic stroke, pituitary apoplexy, acute arterial hypertension, spontaneous intracranial hypotension, third ventricle colloid cyst, and intracranial infections. Patients with TCH who have evidence of reversible, segmental, cerebral vasoconstriction of circle of Willis arteries and normal or near-normal cerebrospinal fluid evaluation are considered to have reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Primary TCH is diagnosed when no underlying etiology is identified. In this review, we discuss the differential diagnosis of TCH, outline the characteristics and diagnostic criteria for primary TCH, offer a pathophysiologic hypothesis for primary TCH, and detail the diagnostic evaluation of the patient presenting with TCH.Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 04/2007; 7(2):101-9. · 3.78 Impact Factor