Influence of antiretroviral drugs on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone in HIV-infected individuals.
ABSTRACT Corticosteroids are cytochrome P450 3A4 substrates, which have been associated with toxicities in patients receiving cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors such as human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors. In a study in healthy volunteers, ritonavir significantly increased prednisolone exposure.
We investigated the influence of antiretroviral (ARV) medications on prednisolone pharmacokinetics in 3 groups of 10 human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. One group received lopinavir/ritonavir, and another efavirenz, as part of their ARV regimen; a third group did not receive ARV medications. Each subject received a single 20-mg prednisone dose followed by serial blood sampling for prednisolone. Prednisolone pharmacokinetics were compared among the groups.
Area under the concentration-time curve was significantly lower in efavirenz recipients versus subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (geometric mean ratio = 0.60, P = 0.01). Average prednisolone area under the concentration-time curve was higher in subjects taking lopinavir/ritonavir versus subjects not on ARVs; however, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05).
These data indicate that prednisolone concentrations may fluctuate widely when human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals established on efavirenz therapy change to lopinavir/ritonavir or vice versa.
Article: Entry of human cytomegalovirus into retinal pigment epithelial and endothelial cells by endocytosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and endothelial cells (HUVECs) are targets of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in vivo with significantly protracted replication in vitro compared with that in fibroblasts. This study analyzes the kinetics and mechanisms of HCMV entry into both cell types. RPE cells were obtained from donor eyes. HUVECs were isolated from human umbilical cords. HCMV entrance was followed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence in the presence of lysosomotropic agents and cytochalasin B. Human cytomegalovirus entered into RPE cells and HUVECs as early as 5 minutes after virus- cell contact. Entry was mediated by endocytosis, whereas HCMV enters fibroblasts through fusion. Most internalized viral particles and dense bodies appeared to be degraded within vacuoles. Viral entry, transport of viral proteins to the nucleus, and onset of viral transcription (immediate early [IE] protein expression) were significantly blocked by cytochalasin B. Lysosomotropic agents did not significantly reduce IE expression in RPE cells or HUVECs. This study shows that HCMV penetrates these highly specialized relevant cells via endocytosis. The low level of infection and the delay in the onset of HCMV expression seen in these cells compared with fibroblasts may be related to the sequestration and degradation of incoming viral particles in endocytic vacuoles.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 11/1999; 40(11):2598-607. · 3.60 Impact Factor