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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is clear that exposure to traumatic events is not uncommon in childhood and adolescence and psychologists working in schools should have some training in meeting the needs of this segment of the population. This manuscript summarizes the incidence of trauma in children worldwide and then discusses interventions for trauma (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy & Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools) which have been empirically validated for use with children and/or adolescents. A summary of a project (Project Fleur-de-lis) which attempted to integrate these two treatment approaches into a systematic intervention system is also discussed. In addition, the concept of post-traumatic growth, cultural considerations in working with children from diverse societies, and training needs of school psychologists are addressed.
School Psychology International 08/2011; 32(5):448-463. DOI:10.1177/0143034311402916 · 0.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of evidence for the effectiveness and safety of commonly used crisis interventions
in schools, such as critical incident stress debriefing (CISD), critical incident stress management (CISM), and psychological
debriefing (PD). Two researchers independently searched relevant databases for reviews and meta-analyses in English language
peer-reviewed journals using identified keywords. The database search was supplemented by hand searches of the reference lists
of database-identified reviews. Selected reviews were compared and analyzed for the effectiveness of CISD/CISM/PD interventions.
Research findings suggest that these interventions are ineffective and may be harmful. Evidence of effectiveness of CISD/CISM/PD
interventions in schools is very limited. Given evidence of ineffectiveness and potential harm of CISD/CISM/PD interventions
in adults and limited evidence of these interventions in schools, there is no compelling reason to implement CISD/CISM/PD
following crisis events in schools.
KeywordsCritical incident stress debriefing (CISD)-Critical incident stress management (CISM)-Psychological debriefing-Crisis intervention-School