Criteria-based diagnosis and antibiotic overuse for upper respiratory infections.
ABSTRACT Studies of antibiotic overuse often rely on physicians' reports of diagnoses, which can overestimate bacterial illness. To assess potential overdiagnosis, we determine bacterial upper respiratory infection diagnoses by direct observation of visit videotapes.
From an observational study of videotaped visits for upper respiratory symptoms (N = 66), coders assessed diagnostic criteria (symptoms, physician description of physical examination findings, and diagnostic tests), physician diagnosis, and prescribing. Survey data included patient demographics and health care utilization as well as physician/practice characteristics (n = 15).
Criteria-based diagnoses were determined from coded diagnostic criteria. Interrater reliabilities were determined for 33% (n = 22) of visits. Chi-square tests assessed concordance between the physician's diagnosis and the criteria-based diagnosis and compared rates of antibiotic overuse as determined from physician and criteria-based diagnoses.
The criteria-based diagnosis agreed with 100% of physicians' diagnoses of streptococcal pharyngitis and 73% of physicians' acute otitis media diagnoses but with only 17% of physicians' sinusitis diagnoses. Antibiotic overuse occurred in 11% of visits based on physicians' diagnoses but in 32% of visits when criteria-based diagnoses were considered, a difference of 21% (95% confidence interval, 2%-38%; P < 0.05).
Criteria-based diagnoses revealed that antibiotic overuse occurred 3 times more frequently than suggested by physician diagnoses. Concordance between physician and criteria-based diagnoses was lowest for sinusitis. Future studies should consider the contribution of overdiagnosis to antibiotic overuse and target this practice to further reduce overuse.
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ABSTRACT: This study examined relationships between provider communication practices, antibiotic prescribing, and parent care ratings during pediatric visits for acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1,285 pediatric visits motivated by ARTI symptoms. Children were seen by 1 of 28 pediatric providers representing 10 practices in Seattle, Washington, between December 2007 and April 2009. Providers completed post-visit surveys reporting on children's presenting symptoms, physical examination findings, assigned diagnoses, and treatments prescribed. Parents completed post-visit surveys reporting on provider communication practices and care ratings for the visit. Multivariate analyses identified key predictors of prescribing antibiotics for ARTI and of parent visit ratings. Suggesting actions parents could take to reduce their child's symptoms (providing positive treatment recommendations) was associated with decreased risk of antibiotic prescribing whether done alone or in combination with negative treatment recommendations (ruling out the need for antibiotics) [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.95; and aRR 0.15; 95% CI, 0.06-0.40, respectively]. Parents receiving combined positive and negative treatment recommendations were more likely to give the highest possible visit rating (aRR 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34). Combined use of positive and negative treatment recommendations may reduce the risk of antibiotic prescribing for children with viral ARTIs and at the same time improve visit ratings. With the growing threat of antibiotic resistance at the community and individual level, these communication techniques may assist frontline providers in helping to address this pervasive public health problem. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.The Annals of Family Medicine 05/2015; 13(3):221-7. DOI:10.1370/afm.1785 · 4.57 Impact Factor
- PEDIATRICS 06/2011; 127(6):1174-6. DOI:10.1542/peds.2011-0894 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases established the Sore Throat Guideline Group to write an updated guideline to diagnose and treat patients with acute sore throat. In diagnosis, Centor clinical scoring system or rapid antigen test can be helpful in targeting antibiotic use. The Centor scoring system can help to identify those patients who have higher likelihood of group A streptococcal infection. In patients with high likelihood of streptococcal infections (e.g. 3-4 Centor criteria) physicians can consider the use of rapid antigen test (RAT). If RAT is performed, throat culture is not necessary after a negative RAT for the diagnosis of group A streptococci. To treat sore throat, either ibuprofen or paracetamol are recommended for relief of acute sore throat symptoms. Zinc gluconate is not recommended to be used in sore throat. There is inconsistent evidence of herbal treatments and acupuncture as treatments for sore throat. Antibiotics should not be used in patients with less severe presentation of sore throat, e.g. 0-2 Centor criteria to relieve symptoms. Modest benefits of antibiotics, which have been observed in patients with 3-4 Centor criteria, have to be weighed against side effects, the effect of antibiotics on microbiota, increased antibacterial resistance, medicalisation and costs. The prevention of suppurative complications is not a specific indication for antibiotic therapy in sore throat. If antibiotics are indicated, penicillin V, twice or three times daily for 10 days is recommended. At the present, there is no evidence enough that indicates shorter treatment length.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 04/2012; 18 Suppl 1:1-28. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03766.x · 5.20 Impact Factor