Can a manager have a life and a career? International and multisource perspectives on work-life balance and career advancement potential.
ABSTRACT The present study was the first cross-national examination of whether managers who were perceived to be high in work-life balance were expected to be more or less likely to advance in their careers than were less balanced, more work-focused managers. Using self ratings, peer ratings, and supervisor ratings of 9,627 managers in 33 countries, the authors examined within-source and multisource relationships with multilevel analyses. The authors generally found that managers who were rated higher in work-life balance were rated higher in career advancement potential than were managers who were rated lower in work-life balance. However, national gender egalitarianism, measured with Project GLOBE scores, moderated relationships based on supervisor and self ratings, with stronger positive relationships in low egalitarian cultures. The authors also found 3-way interactions of work-life balance ratings, ratee gender, and gender egalitarianism in multisource analyses in which self balance ratings predicted supervisor and peer ratings of advancement potential. Work-life balance ratings were positively related to advancement potential ratings for women in high egalitarian cultures and men in low gender egalitarian cultures, but relationships were nonsignificant for men in high egalitarian cultures and women in low egalitarian cultures.
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ABSTRACT: Using a multi-source data set collected across eight European countries, this article examines how characteristics of both the organizational environment and the larger national context relate to the organizational-level variable of women's employment. Our study revealed that, in countries that were high in gender empowerment measure (GEM), establishments that were more supportive of part-time work options also employed a higher proportion of women. One reason for this relationship may be that in high-GEM countries offering part-time employment is a way for an organization to signal its support for work–life balance, something that makes it more attractive to women. In countries with low GEM, an establishment's greater support for part-time work was associated with employing a greater proportion of women only when establishments experienced recruitment difficulties. Key differences in gender empowerment between countries are discussed.The International Journal of Human Resource Management 03/2015; 26(6). DOI:10.1080/09585192.2014.971847 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Work–life balance has important implications for both personal well-being and work-related outcomes. This study investigated gender differences in multisource ratings of work–life balance, based on self-reports and supervisors' appraisals of 40,921 managers in 36 countries. Based on a combination of theoretical ideas from social role theory (Eagly & Wood, 2012), prior work–life literature, and gender egalitarianism as a cultural dimension related to societal gender roles, the study tested gender egalitarianism as a moderator of cross-national variations in these gender differences. Based on multilevel (HLM) analyses, results showed more cross-national variation by ratee gender in supervisors' appraisals than self-reports, suggesting that supervisors' perceptions reflected greater influence of societal gender stereotypes. Supervisors rated women lower in work–life balance than men in low egalitarian countries, but similar to men in high egalitarian countries, and only appraisals of women varied depending on egalitarian context. Country gender egalitarian values explained the majority of variation in supervisors' appraisals of women's work–life balance, whereas women's self-reported balance was linked to objective gender inequalities. Taken together, the findings show that supervisors' perceptions of employees' work–life balance differed by ratee gender and country context, with important implications for work–life theory and practical implications for global employers.Applied Psychology 01/2014; 63(1). DOI:10.1111/apps.12011 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In some cultures, individuals are free to pursue careers that match their personalities. In others, familial and societal expectations regarding career paths may restrict the links between individual personality and interests. Gender role expectations also may vary across cultures and may be associated with gender differences in interests. Past meta-analytic research has shown some career interests are related to personality traits (Barrick, Mount, & Gupta, 2003; Larson, Rottinghaus, & Borgen, 2002), but the cross-cultural variation of these relationships has not been sufficiently explored. Interest and personality data were obtained from an archival data set of 391,485 individuals from 20 countries. Results indicated that in cultures with high in-group collectivism, connections between personality traits and occupational interests may be less pronounced. Cultural gender egalitarianism moderated the level of gender differences in interests, unexpectedly demonstrating that gender differences may be wider in egalitarian cultures. Implications for career guidance in multicultural settings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).Journal of Counseling Psychology 08/2013; 60(4):569-581. DOI:10.1037/a0033587 · 3.23 Impact Factor