Can a Manager Have a Life and a Career? International and Multisource Perspectives on Work-Life Balance and Career Advancement Potential

Department of Psychology, Baruch College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10010-5585, USA.
Journal of Applied Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.31). 07/2008; 93(4):789-805. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.4.789
Source: PubMed


The present study was the first cross-national examination of whether managers who were perceived to be high in work-life balance were expected to be more or less likely to advance in their careers than were less balanced, more work-focused managers. Using self ratings, peer ratings, and supervisor ratings of 9,627 managers in 33 countries, the authors examined within-source and multisource relationships with multilevel analyses. The authors generally found that managers who were rated higher in work-life balance were rated higher in career advancement potential than were managers who were rated lower in work-life balance. However, national gender egalitarianism, measured with Project GLOBE scores, moderated relationships based on supervisor and self ratings, with stronger positive relationships in low egalitarian cultures. The authors also found 3-way interactions of work-life balance ratings, ratee gender, and gender egalitarianism in multisource analyses in which self balance ratings predicted supervisor and peer ratings of advancement potential. Work-life balance ratings were positively related to advancement potential ratings for women in high egalitarian cultures and men in low gender egalitarian cultures, but relationships were nonsignificant for men in high egalitarian cultures and women in low egalitarian cultures.

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    • "Moreover, women in societies that emphasize egalitarian gender values are more likely to occupy positions of high authority, and thus may have significant influence on policies that support employees' need to combine work and family demands (Lyness and Kropf, 2005) Uunk et al. (2005) reported that in countries that promote gender equality, employers tend to be more supportive of employees' need to combine work and family life. Since gender egalitarianism concerns distinctions in gender roles (Lyness and Judiesch, 2008), it may have implications for gender differences in experiences of the work-family interface in different cultural contexts. "
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    ABSTRACT: Changing demographic trends occurring in the work and family spheres have made combining work and family responsibilities an increasingly challenging task for employees in virtually every nation. However, previous studies on work-family conflict have focused predominantly on Western and developed nations, with little attention to the experience of work-family conflict across different national contexts. Only recently have studies begun to examine work-family conflict from cross-national perspective. This paper presents a review of cross-national studies on work-family conflict focusing on the influences of cultural, institutional and economic factors. Overall, the review suggests that existing cross-national research on work-family conflict is narrow in scope, with most studies focused mainly on identifying differences in prevalence of the phenomenon across national contexts. The paper outlines agenda for future research to increase understanding of contextual influences on the experience of work-family conflict.
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    • "Similarly, normative views on women's roles in the market and household may also influence the way employers provide flexible work arrangements. In countries where gender norms are positive towards women, and especially mothers, working, there may be more demand from workers for employers to provide family friendly arrangements (Kassinis & Stavrou, 2013; Lyness & Judiesch, 2008). "
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    DESCRIPTION: This paper examines the provision of flexitime in companies across a number of European countries. The results show that company composition, structure and agency factors all play a role in explaining the provision of flexitime. However, the factors explaining the provision of flexitime within each country are not necessarily the same as those explaining how companies provide it to employees. Cross-national variance in the provision of flexitime in 2009 can be explained mostly through national level demand: female labour market participation rates, cultural norms on work, as well as the affluence of the country. This is a change from 2004, where the most important factors explaining the provision of flexitime were government efforts in providing family policy and the size of the public sector. Overall, this paper shows that the more relevant factors in explaining why companies provide flexitime, especially as related to cross-national differences, seem to be based on the demand for such policies and the available resources to meet the demands.
    • "According to SCCT (Lent & Brown, 2013; Lent et al., 1994), work values and preferences influence adaptive career behaviors such as selfregulatory processes that interact with social–contextual factors to initiate several achievement behaviors. Thus, they are predictors of individual motivation, behaviors, and decisions (Bardi & Schwartz, 2003), and in turn, work values, job attribute preferences, and associated career goals are related to career progress and success (Abele & Spurk, 2009b; Lyness & Judiesch, 2008). SCCT has also been successfully applied to the examination of gender differences in interest development, choice making, performance, persistence, and turnover in different vocational contexts, among others of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers (Lent & Brown, 2013; Singh et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Women are strongly underrepresented at top positions in research, with some research suggesting the postdoctoral career stage is a critical stage for female researchers. Drawing on role congruity theory and social cognitive career theory, we tested the gender-differential impact of work values (extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and work-life balance values) on subjective career success and supports from supervisors (leader-member exchange) and team members. We conducted an online survey with male and female postdoctoral scientists (N = 258). As hypothesized, the positive relationship between extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and subjective career success and supports was stronger for male researchers than for female researchers. Results on work-life balance values were less conclusive. These findings support the idea that gendered appraisal processes may affect career-relevant outcomes.
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