An epidermal nevus syndrome with cerebral involvement caused by a mosaic FGFR3 mutation
ABSTRACT A 5-year-old Mexican girl had a bilateral, systematized epidermal nevus of a non-epidermolytic, non-organoid type covering large parts of her body with the exception of the scalp. Clinically, this nevus was of a soft, velvety type showing affinity to the large body folds. Histopathological examination revealed orthohyperkeratosis and papillomatosis without granular degeneration and without any abnormality of adnexal structures. During infancy she developed seizures, and subsequently a delayed mental development was noted. Computer tomography of the brain revealed cortical and subcortical atrophy, a subdural hygroma in the left frontoparietotemporal region, and hypoplasia of corpus callosum. Molecular analysis of a biopsy specimen obtained from the epidermal nevus revealed a heterozygous R248C hotspot mutation in FGFR3, whereas in normal skin the FGFR3 wild-type allele was exclusively found. The R248C mutation was also present in DNA extracted from blood leukocytes. Because FGFR3 is involved in the development of the central nervous system, the clinical and genetic findings of this case indicate a widespread mosaicism of the FGFR3 mutation. This unusual mosaic phenotype may represent a distinct entity within the group of epidermal nevus syndromes.
Conference Paper: The solution of the state-space cover problems[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using the concept of partial realization of a sequence of matrices, we give the complete solution of the state-space version of the so-called cover problems. The main tool proposed for the study of the above problems is the behavior (Hankel) matrix of the associated partial realization problem. It actually turns out that the parameterization of the solution sets follows without computation from this behavior matrix.Decision and Control, 1982 21st IEEE Conference on; 01/1983
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ABSTRACT: To determine the relative frequency of mutations in three different genes (low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), APOB, PCSK9), and to examine their effect in development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with clinically defined definite familial hypercholesterolaemia in UK. Patients and 409 patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia patients (158 with CHD) were studied. The LDLR was partially screened by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) (exons 3, 4, 6-10 and 14) and by using a commercial kit for gross deletions or rearrangements. APOB (p.R3500Q) and PCSK9 (p.D374Y) were detected by specific assays. Coding exons of PCSK9 were screened by SSCP. Mutations were detected in 253 (61.9%) 236 (57.7%) carried LDLR, 10 (2.4%) carried APOB p.Q3500 and 7 (1.7%) PCSK9 p.Y374. No additional mutations were identified in PCSK9. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking and systolic blood pressure, compared to those with no detectable mutation, the odds ratio of having CHD in those with an LDLR mutation was 1.84 (95% CI 1.10 to 3.06), for APOB 3.40 (0.71 to 16.36), and for PCSK9 19.96 (1.88 to 211.5; p = 0.001 overall). The high risk in patients carrying LDLR and PCSK9 p.Y374 was partly explained by their higher pretreatment cholesterol levels (LDLR, PCSK9 and no mutation, 10.29 (1.85), 13.12 and 9.85 (1.90) mmol/l, respectively, p = 0.001). The post-statin treatment lipid profile in PCSK9 p.Y374 carriers was worse than in patients with no identified mutation (LDL-C, 6.77 (1.82) mmol/l v 4.19 (1.26) mmol/l, p = 0.001, HDL-C 1.09 (0.27) mmol/l v 1.36 (0.36) mmol/l, p = 0.03). The higher CHD risk in patients carrying PCSK9 p.Y347 or a detected LDLR mutation supports the usefulness of DNA testing in the diagnosis and management of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Mutations in PCSK9 appear uncommon in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia in UK.Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2007; 43(12):943-9. DOI:10.1136/jmg.2006.038356 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A genetic mosaic is defined as an organism which is composed of genetically different cell lines which originate from a homogeneous zygote. Etiologically, cutaneous mosaics can be divided into two large categories, epigenetic mosaicism and genomic mosaicism. Genomic mosaics which have two or more genetically different cell populations are not inherited with the exception of para-dominant inheritance pattern. Epigenetic mosaics have a structurally homogeneous cell population but there are functional differences induced by modifying factors in the form of gene-steering retroviral elements that can be inherited. We distinguish five different manifestation patterns of mosaicism, including the Blaschko lines pattern, patchy pattern without midline separation, checkerboard pattern, phylloid pattern and lateralization pattern. All forms of epigenetic mosaicism, including the various patterns of X-inactivation, appear to be caused by the action of retrotransposons. A new concept is functional autosomal mosaicism transmittable through the action of retrotransposonsJournal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft 04/2009; 7(9):744-48. DOI:10.1111/j.1610-0387.2009.07033.x · 1.40 Impact Factor