Detection of significant coronary artery stenosis with 64-slice computed tomography in heart transplant recipients: a comparative study with conventional coronary angiography.
ABSTRACT The present study evaluates clinical feasibility of cardiac multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) to detect significant stenosis of coronary vessels due to transplant vasculopathy (TVP) after heart transplantation (HTx).
Twenty-eight consecutive male HTx-recipients scheduled for their annual routine conventional coronary angiography (CCA) additionally underwent 64-slice MDCTA.
Two patients were excluded from further MDCTA analysis. Out of 371 remaining coronary vessel segments evaluable by CCA, MDCTA was able to depict 302 (81.4%) in diagnostic image quality. On a segment based analysis, sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy (DA), negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) for detection of significant stenosis were calculated with 87.5%, 97.3%, 97.0%, 99.7%, and 46.7%, respectively. On a patient-based evaluation, sensitivity, specificity, DA, NPV, PPV were 100%, 81%, 84.6%, 100% and 55.6%, respectively. Evaluation of stenosis degree by MDCTA showed systematic overestimation of 4.4%. A moderate to good agreement comparing both modalities was found (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.64).
High NPV suggesting 64-slice MDCTA being a reliable diagnostic tool for ruling out significant stenosis due to TVP in HTx patients. But its clinical value in these particular patients needs further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice computed tomography (CT) to identify and quantify atherosclerotic coronary lesions in comparison with catheter-based angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Currently, the ability of multislice CT to quantify the degree of coronary artery stenosis and dimensions of coronary plaques has not been evaluated. We included 59 patients scheduled for coronary angiography due to stable angina pectoris. A contrast-enhanced 64-slice CT (Senation 64, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) was performed before the invasive angiogram. In a subset of 18 patients, IVUS of 32 vessels was part of the catheterization procedure. In 55 of 59 patients, 64-slice CT enabled the visualization of the entire coronary tree with diagnostic image quality (American Heart Association 15-segment model). The overall correlation between the degree of stenosis detected by quantitative coronary angiography compared with 64-slice CT was r = 0.54. Sensitivity for the detection of stenosis <50%, stenosis >50%, and stenosis >75% was 79%, 73%, and 80%, respectively, and specificity was 97%. In comparison with IVUS, 46 of 55 (84%) lesions were identified correctly. The mean plaque areas and the percentage of vessel obstruction measured by IVUS and 64-slice CT were 8.1 mm2 versus 7.3 mm2 (p < 0.03, r = 0.73) and 50.4% versus 41.1% (p < 0.001, r = 0.61), respectively. Contrast-enhanced 64-slice CT is a clinically robust modality that allows the identification of proximal coronary lesions with excellent accuracy. Measurements of plaque and lumen areas derived by CT correlated well with IVUS. A major limitation is the insufficient ability of CT to exactly quantify the degree of stenosis.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2005; 46(1):147-54. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), usually defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL (44.2 mumol/L), or a 25% increase from the baseline value 48 hours after the procedure, is a common and potentially serious complication of the use of iodinated contrast media in patients at risk of acute renal injury. It is an important cause of hospital-acquired renal failure, responsible for approximately 11% of cases. CIN may be difficult to distinguish from cholesterol embolization, another cause of postprocedure renal impairment. The reported incidence of CIN varies depending on the patient population studied. The impact of postprocedural renal impairment on clinical outcomes has been evaluated most extensively in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. CIN is associated with increased mortality both in hospital and at 1 year. A higher incidence of in-hospital and late cardiovascular events, as well as longer hospital stays, has been reported in patients developing CIN. In a small proportion of patients, CIN is severe enough to require dialysis, and these patients have a particularly poor prognosis. Many of the risk markers for CIN are also predictive of a worse prognosis.The American Journal of Cardiology 10/2006; 98(6A):5K-13K. · 3.21 Impact Factor
Article: Contrast medium use.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Various properties of iodinated contrast media (osmolality, ionic versus nonionic, and viscosity) may contribute to contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Therefore, the choice of contrast medium affects the risk for CIN. There is good evidence that low-osmolar contrast media are less nephrotoxic than high-osmolar contrast media in patients at increased risk for CIN who receive intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Current evidence suggests that nonionic isosmolar contrast presents the lowest risk for CIN in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in those patients with diabetes mellitus. Intra-arterial administration of contrast media may be associated with a greater risk for CIN above that observed with intravenous administration. The use of gadolinium or CO(2) as alternative contrast media to avoid the risk of nephrotoxicity cannot be substantiated by clinical trials and therefore cannot be recommended. Most studies show that, within a class, higher volumes (>100 mL) of iodinated contrast medium are associated with a higher risk for CIN. However, in patients at high risk, such as those with CKD and diabetes, even small volumes of contrast medium can have adverse effects on renal function.The American Journal of Cardiology 09/2006; 98(6A):42K-58K. · 3.21 Impact Factor