Regional body fat distribution and metabolic profile in postmenopausal women
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to examine how body fat distribution variables were associated with metabolic parameters in a sample of 113 postmenopausal women not receiving hormone therapy (56.9 +/- 4.4 years, 28.4 +/- 5.1 kg/m(2)). Body fat distribution variables (visceral adipose tissue [AT], subcutaneous AT, and total midthigh AT) were measured using computed tomography; body fat mass was assessed by hydrostatic weighing; insulin sensitivity was determined with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp; fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations were measured by a 75-g oral glucose load; and (high-sensitivity) C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured using a highly sensitive assay. After controlling for fat mass, visceral AT was positively associated with plasma triglyceride, hs-CRP, FPG, and 2hPG, and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin sensitivity. Total midthigh AT was negatively associated with apolipoprotein B, FPG, and 2hPG, and positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Stepwise multiple regression analyses including abdominal visceral AT, subcutaneous AT and total midthigh AT as independent variables showed that abdominal visceral AT best predicted the variance in plasma triglyceride, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein peak particle size, hs-CRP, FPG, 2hPG, and insulin sensitivity. Abdominal subcutaneous AT was a significant predictor of only insulin sensitivity, whereas total midthigh AT predicted HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein peak particle size, and apolipoprotein B. These multivariate analyses also indicated that total midthigh AT was favorably related to these outcomes, whereas abdominal visceral AT and subcutaneous AT were unfavorably related. These results confirmed that abdominal visceral fat is a critical correlate of metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women. In addition, a higher proportion of AT located in the total midthigh depot is associated with a favorable metabolic profile.
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- "CVD is rarely seen in premenopausal women, but its incidence increases markedly after menopause . Menopause is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and redistribution of body fat in favor of abdominal adipose tissue . Central distribution of body fat and menopause-induced estrogen deficiency leads to increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases . "
ABSTRACT: Objective We designed a prospective case-control study in order to investigate the lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the abdominal fat distribution in karyotypically normal women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Methods Anthropometric measurements, FSH, estradiol, total testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), fasting glucose and insulin, homeostatic model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, the prevalence of MetS and ultrasonographic abdominal fat measurements were assessed in 56 women with POI and 59 healthy controls at the same age range. Results Serum levels of T, SHBG and FAI were not significantly different between both groups. Total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were higher in women with POI. There were no differences in glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride levels between the two groups. A significant positive correlation was identified between T and TG and also between FAI and LDL-C; SHBG levels were correlated inversely with FSH, and positively with HDL-C in women with POI. The presence of MetS was significantly higher in women with POI. The subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral fat thicknesses were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusions Early cessation of ovulatory function may associated with higher levels of serum TC and HDL-C, but does not seem to cause differences in abdominal fat distribution in women with POI. POI is associated with higher risk of MetS.Maturitas 11/2014; 79(3). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.07.008 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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- "Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in muscle mass, negatively impacts health as it leads to reduced mobility and functional disability.3) In addition, postmenopausal women experience hormone changes that are associated with an accumulation of central body fat, leading to the development of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome.4,5) "
ABSTRACT: Whole body vibration (WBV) confers a continuous vibration stimuli to the body. While some reports have described the effects of WBV on bone mineral density, muscle mass, muscle power, study of WBV effects on body composition in postmenopausal women is rare. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effect of WBV on the changes of body weight and body composition in postmenopausal women. Fifteen postmenopausal healthy and obese women who were on staff of one university hospital staff located in Suwon, Korea were voluntarily recruited. Inclusion criteria were age over 50 years, and body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2). WBV group training was performed in 10 minute sessions twice weekly for 8 weeks. Before and after training, anthropometric measurements and body composition analysis were performed. Weight (-1.18 ± 1.61 kg), BMI (-0.49 ± 0.66 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (-2.34 ± 2.48 cm) and muscle mass (-0.54 ± 0.59 kg) decreased significantly the 8 week intervention. Decrease of muscle mass was correlated with weight (r = 0.621, P = 0.013), BMI (r = 0.596, P = 0.019) and percent body fat (r = -0.518, P = 0.048). Linear regression analysis revealed that the changes of muscle mass had negative relationship with percent body fat change and a positive relationship with body weight changes. WBV might display a weak but positive effect on body weight and waist circumference reduction in healthy postmenopausal obese women. However, attention must be given to avoid a decrease of muscle mass.11/2011; 32(7):399-405. DOI:10.4082/kjfm.2011.32.7.399
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- "Specifically, VFT as measured by ultrasonography and the VFT/SFT ratio decreased only in the responder group. The relationship between CRP and abdominal adiposity has been reported in several studies      . A recent study with 1250 Framingham Offspring Study participants (10% diabetic patients) using volumetric multidetector CT showed that both subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue are associated with plasma inflammatory markers including CRP and that the association for visceral adipose tissue is stronger . "
ABSTRACT: Thiazoledinedione is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect besides a hypoglycemic effect. We investigated changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a proinflammatory marker, after pioglitazone treatment in association with the resulting changes in various metabolic and anthropometric parameters. A total of 93 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (47 men and 46 women; mean age, 50.0 ± 10.8 years) who were being treated with a stable dose of sulfonylurea or metformin were enrolled in the study. Pioglitazone (15 mg/d) was added to their treatment regimen for 12 weeks, and metabolic and anthropometric measurements were taken before and after pioglitazone treatment. Pioglitazone treatment for 12 weeks decreased serum hsCRP levels (0.83 [1.14] to 0.52 [0.82] mg/L, P < .001) and improved glycemic control (fasting glucose, P < .001; glycosylated hemoglobin, P < .001) and lipid profiles (triglyceride, P = .016; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, P < .001). Between responders and nonresponders to the hsCRP-lowering effect of pioglitazone, there were significant differences in baseline hsCRP levels and changes in the postprandial glucose and the ratio of visceral fat thickness (VFT) to subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) (P = .004, .011, and .001, respectively). The percentage change in hsCRP levels after treatment was inversely correlated with baseline hsCRP levels (r = -0.497, P < .001) and directly correlated with the change in postprandial glucose (r = 0.251, P = .021), VFT (r = 0.246, P = .030), and VFT/SFT ratio (r = 0.276, P = .015). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the hsCRP-lowering effect of pioglitazone was affected by baseline hsCRP levels (odds ratio [OR] = 7.929, P = .007) as well as changes in postprandial 2-hour glucose (OR = 0.716, P = .025) and VFT/SFT ratio (OR = 0.055, P = .009). In conclusion, treatment with pioglitazone produced an anti-inflammatory effect, decreasing serum hsCRP levels; and a decrease in the VFT/SFT ratio was independently and most strongly associated with the hsCRP-decreasing effect. These results suggest that abdominal fat redistribution preferentially reflects the anti-inflammatory benefits of pioglitazone treatment.Metabolism: clinical and experimental 02/2011; 60(2):165-72. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2009.12.007 · 3.61 Impact Factor