Regional body fat distribution and metabolic profile in postmenopausal women.
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to examine how body fat distribution variables were associated with metabolic parameters in a sample of 113 postmenopausal women not receiving hormone therapy (56.9 +/- 4.4 years, 28.4 +/- 5.1 kg/m(2)). Body fat distribution variables (visceral adipose tissue [AT], subcutaneous AT, and total midthigh AT) were measured using computed tomography; body fat mass was assessed by hydrostatic weighing; insulin sensitivity was determined with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp; fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations were measured by a 75-g oral glucose load; and (high-sensitivity) C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured using a highly sensitive assay. After controlling for fat mass, visceral AT was positively associated with plasma triglyceride, hs-CRP, FPG, and 2hPG, and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin sensitivity. Total midthigh AT was negatively associated with apolipoprotein B, FPG, and 2hPG, and positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Stepwise multiple regression analyses including abdominal visceral AT, subcutaneous AT and total midthigh AT as independent variables showed that abdominal visceral AT best predicted the variance in plasma triglyceride, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein peak particle size, hs-CRP, FPG, 2hPG, and insulin sensitivity. Abdominal subcutaneous AT was a significant predictor of only insulin sensitivity, whereas total midthigh AT predicted HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein peak particle size, and apolipoprotein B. These multivariate analyses also indicated that total midthigh AT was favorably related to these outcomes, whereas abdominal visceral AT and subcutaneous AT were unfavorably related. These results confirmed that abdominal visceral fat is a critical correlate of metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women. In addition, a higher proportion of AT located in the total midthigh depot is associated with a favorable metabolic profile.
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ABSTRACT: Objective We designed a prospective case-control study in order to investigate the lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the abdominal fat distribution in karyotypically normal women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Methods Anthropometric measurements, FSH, estradiol, total testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), fasting glucose and insulin, homeostatic model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, the prevalence of MetS and ultrasonographic abdominal fat measurements were assessed in 56 women with POI and 59 healthy controls at the same age range. Results Serum levels of T, SHBG and FAI were not significantly different between both groups. Total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were higher in women with POI. There were no differences in glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride levels between the two groups. A significant positive correlation was identified between T and TG and also between FAI and LDL-C; SHBG levels were correlated inversely with FSH, and positively with HDL-C in women with POI. The presence of MetS was significantly higher in women with POI. The subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral fat thicknesses were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusions Early cessation of ovulatory function may associated with higher levels of serum TC and HDL-C, but does not seem to cause differences in abdominal fat distribution in women with POI. POI is associated with higher risk of MetS.Maturitas 11/2014; 79(3). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.07.008 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thiazoledinedione is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect besides a hypoglycemic effect. We investigated changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a proinflammatory marker, after pioglitazone treatment in association with the resulting changes in various metabolic and anthropometric parameters. A total of 93 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (47 men and 46 women; mean age, 50.0 ± 10.8 years) who were being treated with a stable dose of sulfonylurea or metformin were enrolled in the study. Pioglitazone (15 mg/d) was added to their treatment regimen for 12 weeks, and metabolic and anthropometric measurements were taken before and after pioglitazone treatment. Pioglitazone treatment for 12 weeks decreased serum hsCRP levels (0.83 [1.14] to 0.52 [0.82] mg/L, P < .001) and improved glycemic control (fasting glucose, P < .001; glycosylated hemoglobin, P < .001) and lipid profiles (triglyceride, P = .016; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, P < .001). Between responders and nonresponders to the hsCRP-lowering effect of pioglitazone, there were significant differences in baseline hsCRP levels and changes in the postprandial glucose and the ratio of visceral fat thickness (VFT) to subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) (P = .004, .011, and .001, respectively). The percentage change in hsCRP levels after treatment was inversely correlated with baseline hsCRP levels (r = -0.497, P < .001) and directly correlated with the change in postprandial glucose (r = 0.251, P = .021), VFT (r = 0.246, P = .030), and VFT/SFT ratio (r = 0.276, P = .015). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the hsCRP-lowering effect of pioglitazone was affected by baseline hsCRP levels (odds ratio [OR] = 7.929, P = .007) as well as changes in postprandial 2-hour glucose (OR = 0.716, P = .025) and VFT/SFT ratio (OR = 0.055, P = .009). In conclusion, treatment with pioglitazone produced an anti-inflammatory effect, decreasing serum hsCRP levels; and a decrease in the VFT/SFT ratio was independently and most strongly associated with the hsCRP-decreasing effect. These results suggest that abdominal fat redistribution preferentially reflects the anti-inflammatory benefits of pioglitazone treatment.Metabolism: clinical and experimental 02/2011; 60(2):165-72. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2009.12.007 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vivo precision for body composition measurements using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar iDXA, GE Healthcare, Bucks, UK) was evaluated in 52 men and women, aged 34.8 (s.d. 8.4; range 20.1-50.5) years, body mass index (25.8 kg/m(2); range 16.7-42.7 kg/m(2)). Two consecutive total body scans (with re-positioning) were conducted. Precision was excellent for all measurements, particularly for total body bone mineral content and lean tissue mass (root mean square 0.015 and 0.244 kg; coefficients of variation (CV) 0.6 and 0.5%, respectively). Precision error was CV 0.82% for total fat mass and 0.86% for percentage fat. Precision was better for gynoid (root mean square 0.397 kg; CV 0.96%) than for android fat distribution (root mean square 0.780 kg, CV 2.32%). There was good agreement between consecutive measurements for all measurements (slope (s.e.) 0.993-1.002; all R(2) = 0.99). The Lunar iDXA provided excellent precision for total body composition measurements. Research into the effect of body size on the precision of DXA body fat distribution measurements is required.European journal of clinical nutrition 01/2011; 65(1):140-2. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2010.190 · 2.95 Impact Factor