Regional body fat distribution and metabolic profile in postmenopausal women.
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to examine how body fat distribution variables were associated with metabolic parameters in a sample of 113 postmenopausal women not receiving hormone therapy (56.9 +/- 4.4 years, 28.4 +/- 5.1 kg/m(2)). Body fat distribution variables (visceral adipose tissue [AT], subcutaneous AT, and total midthigh AT) were measured using computed tomography; body fat mass was assessed by hydrostatic weighing; insulin sensitivity was determined with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp; fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations were measured by a 75-g oral glucose load; and (high-sensitivity) C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured using a highly sensitive assay. After controlling for fat mass, visceral AT was positively associated with plasma triglyceride, hs-CRP, FPG, and 2hPG, and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin sensitivity. Total midthigh AT was negatively associated with apolipoprotein B, FPG, and 2hPG, and positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Stepwise multiple regression analyses including abdominal visceral AT, subcutaneous AT and total midthigh AT as independent variables showed that abdominal visceral AT best predicted the variance in plasma triglyceride, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein peak particle size, hs-CRP, FPG, 2hPG, and insulin sensitivity. Abdominal subcutaneous AT was a significant predictor of only insulin sensitivity, whereas total midthigh AT predicted HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein peak particle size, and apolipoprotein B. These multivariate analyses also indicated that total midthigh AT was favorably related to these outcomes, whereas abdominal visceral AT and subcutaneous AT were unfavorably related. These results confirmed that abdominal visceral fat is a critical correlate of metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women. In addition, a higher proportion of AT located in the total midthigh depot is associated with a favorable metabolic profile.
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ABSTRACT: The associations of adipose tissue lipoprotien lipase (AT-LPL) activity with body fatness and plasma lipoprotein levels were studied in the light of the recently described regional differences in AT-LPL activity. In this regard, heparin-releasable LPL activity was measured in abdominal and femoral adipose tissues of 29 pre-menopausal women. Body fatness variables were all positively correlated with abdominal and femoral AT-LPL activities expressed per 10(6) cells. However, abdominal and femoral AT-LPL activities expressed per unit of cell surface displayed divergent association patterns with body fatness and plasma lipoprotein levels. Indeed, only abdominal AT-LPL activity remained significantly correlated with body fatness variables after adjustment for fat cell surface. Furthermore, whereas abdominal AT-LPL activity tended to be negatively correlated with plasma HDL-cholesterol levels, femoral AT-LPL activity was positively correlated with plasma HDL2-cholesterol (r = 0.40, P less than 0.05) concentration and with the HDL2-cholesterol/HDL3-cholesterol ratio (r = 0.49, P less than 0.01). These results demonstrate the importance of taking into account the regional variation in metabolic activity of adipose tissue when studying its associations with body fatness, and with plasma lipoprotein levels. The lack of association between abdominal AT-LPL activity and plasma HDL2-cholesterol levels lead us to suggest that AT-LPL activity may not be causally related with plasma HDL levels.European Journal of Clinical Investigation 09/1991; 21(4):398-405. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with metabolic alterations which increase cardiovascular disease risk. The contribution of hyperglycaemia to this increased risk is, however, not clear. Abdominal obesity is often observed in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance; our objective was therefore to find the contribution of visceral adipose tissue to the deterioration of the metabolic risk profile noted in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. We studied 284 men with a normal glucose tolerance and 66 men with impaired glucose tolerance which was defined as a glycaemia between 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/l 2 h after a 75-g glucose load. Men with impaired glucose tolerance had more visceral adipose tissue and higher concentrations of plasma glucose and insulin in the fasting state and following a 75-g oral glucose load than men with a normal glucose tolerance. They also had higher concentrations of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B and lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol as well as higher cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratios than men with a normal glucose tolerance. The two groups of men were then compared after a statistical adjustment for the amount of visceral adipose tissue. Although men with impaired glucose tolerance still had higher fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after the adjustment for visceral adipose tissue, differences in all the variables of the lipid-lipoprotein profile were eliminated. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is an important factor in the deterioration of the plasma lipid-lipoprotein noted in men with impaired glucose tolerance.Diabetologia 10/2000; 43(9):1126-35. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal sc adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed tomography, abdominal and nonabdominal (e.g. leg) AT by magnetic resonance imaging and cardiovascular fitness. Glucose disposal rates were negatively related to visceral AT mass (r = -0.42, P < 0.01). These observations remained significant (P < 0.01) after control for nonabdominal and abdominal sc AT, muscle attenuation, and peak oxygen uptake. Total, abdominal, or leg sc AT or muscle attenuation was not significantly (P > 0.10) related to glucose disposal. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT into anterior and posterior depots did not alter the observed relationships. Further analysis matched two groups of women for abdominal sc AT but with low and high visceral AT. Women with high visceral AT had lower glucose disposal rates compared with those with low visceral AT (P < 0.05). A similar analysis performed on two groups of women matched for visceral AT but high and low abdominal sc AT revealed no statistically different values for insulin sensitivity (P > 0.10). In conclusion, visceral AT alone is a strong correlate of insulin resistance independent of nonabdominal, abdominal sc AT, muscle composition, and cardiovascular fitness. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT did not provide additional insight into the relationship between abdominal obesity and metabolic risk.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 12/2002; 87(11):5044-51. · 6.43 Impact Factor