A phase II trial of tetrathiomolybdate after surgery for malignant mesothelioma: final results.
ABSTRACT Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is an oral copper-depleting agent that has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis, and angiogenesis is a predictor of poor prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma. We hypothesized that cytoreduction of malignant pleural mesothelioma followed by TM will delay time to progression.
Between November 2000 and August 2003, 30 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma received postoperative TM beginning 4 to 6 weeks after surgery at a dose adjusted to keep ceruloplasmin between 5 and 15 mg/dL). Time to progression was compared with the 55 stage I and II patients and 109 stage III patients previously treated with cytoreduction by one of us (H.P.).
The 30 patients (25 men, 5 women; 13 stage I and II, 17 stage III), median age 67 years (range, 49-81 years), remained on TM a median of 14.9 months (range, 2 to 57 months). All patients reached target ceruloplasmin levels at a mean of 34 +/- 2 days (95% confidence interval, 30 to 39 days), and vascular endothelial growth factor levels at baseline (ceruloplasmin = 45.2 +/- 2 mg/dL) decreased from 2,086 +/- 390 pg/mL to 1,250 +/- 712 pg/mL (p < 0.002) at target ceruloplasmin (13 +/- 2 mg/dL; p < 0.0001 from baseline). The time to progression for all stage I or II TM patients was 20 months whereas that of 55 stage I or II non-TM-treated patients was 10 months (p = 0.046 versus TM). No differences in time to progression for the stage III TM patents from surgery were seen (7 months).
Tetrathiomolybdate has antiangiogenic effects in malignant pleural mesothelioma patients after resection of gross disease, and exhibits minimal toxicity and comparable efficacy to previous multimodality trials. Tetrathiomolybdate should be evaluated for efficacy in combination with standard malignant pleural mesothelioma regimens, as well as for postsurgical maintenance therapy.
- Chemical Reviews 10/2013; 114(1):815-862. · 45.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growth of tumor cells depends on sufficient supply of fermentable substrate, such as glucose. This provokes development of new anticancer therapies based on dietary restrictions. However, some tumor cells can lower their glucose dependency and activate processes of ATP formation/saving to retain viability even in limited glucose supply. In addition, tumor cells often lose sensitivity to many conventional anticancer drugs in the low-glucose conditions. Thus, development of the drugs effectively killing the tumor cells in nutrient-limited conditions is necessary. In this study, we show an enhanced cytotoxicity of tetrathiomolybdate, the drug exhibiting antiangiogenic and tumor-suppressing effects, to neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2) cells in the low-glucose conditions. This preference results from the tetrathiomolybdate-induced upregulation of cell dependency on glucose. The cells treated with tetrathiomolybdate increase the uptake of glucose, production of lactate, activate the Akt- and AMPK-signaling pathways and downregulate COX IV. In cells growing in the low-glucose conditions, these events result in significant decrease of the intracellular ATP supply and apoptosis. We propose tetrathiomolybdate as suitable agent to be used in combination with dietary restrictions in therapy of neuroblastoma.Nutrition and Cancer 07/2013; 65(5):702-10. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Copper, an essential trace element acquired through nutrition, is an important co-factor for pro-angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Decreasing bioavailable copper has been used as an anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer strategy with promising results. However, the role of copper and its potential as a therapy in mesothelioma is not yet well understood. Therefore, we monitored copper levels in progressing murine mesothelioma tumors and analyzed the effects of lowering bioavailable copper. Copper levels in tumors and organs were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mesothelioma tumors rapidly sequestered copper at early stages of development, the copper was then dispersed throughout growing tumor tissues. These data imply that copper uptake may play an important role in early tumor development. Lowering bioavailable copper using the copper chelators, penicillamine, trientine or tetrathiomolybdate, slowed in vivo mesothelioma growth but did not provide any cures similar to using cisplatin chemotherapy or anti-VEGF receptor antibody therapy. The impact of copper lowering on tumor blood vessels and tumor infiltrating T cells was measured using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Copper lowering was associated with reduced tumor vessel diameter, reduced endothelial cell proliferation (reduced Ki67 expression) and lower surface ICAM/CD54 expression implying reduced endothelial cell activation, in a process similar to endothelial normalization. Copper lowering was also associated with a CD4(+) T cell infiltrate. In conclusion, these data suggest copper lowering is a potentially useful anti-mesothelioma treatment strategy that slows tumor growth to provide a window of opportunity for inclusion of other treatment modalities to improve patient outcomes.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e73684. · 3.53 Impact Factor