Anther smut fungi on monocots.

Universität Tübingen, Botanisches Institut, Lehrstuhl Spezielle Botanik und Mykologie, Tübingen, Germany.
Mycological Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 11/2008; 112(Pt 11):1297-306. DOI: 10.1016/j.mycres.2008.06.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Teliospores, hyphal septa, cellular interactions, and nucleotide sequences from the ITS and LSU region of the rRNA gene of specimens of Ustilago vaillantii s. lat. on Muscari and Scilla species were examined and compared with findings in other Ustilaginomycotina. The data show that U. vaillantii s. lat. specimens belong to the Urocystales and represent the sister group of the Urocystaceae, standing well apart from Vankya heufleri and V. ornithogali. Within the Urocystales, U. vaillantii s. lat. is unique in sporulating in the anthers of the host plants. Accordingly, the new genus Antherospora is proposed for the anther smuts on Hyacinthaceae. In addition, our data show that there is a stringent phylogenetic correlation between the specimens of Antherospora and their respective hosts. Thus, the specimens on Scilla spp. as well as those on Muscari spp. form highly supported monophyla. Furthermore, on Scilla a phylogenetic dichotomy exists between the specimens infecting Scilla bifolia and those infecting S. vindobonensis, with the specimens of the two host species showing a difference of 17bp in the ITS nucleotide sequences. Therefore, A. vindobonensis is described as a new species, and A. scillae and A. vaillantii are proposed as new combinations. Consequently, because of their sporulation in anthers and their parasitism on species of other genera of the Hyacinthaceae, Ustilago albucae, U. peglerae, U. tourneuxii, and U. urgineae are also ascribed to Antherospora as new combinations. Descriptions are given for all species.

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    ABSTRACT: The fungal genera Ustilago, Sporisorium and Macalpinomyces represent an unresolved complex. Taxa within the complex often possess characters that occur in more than one genus, creating uncertainty for species placement. Previous studies have indicated that the genera cannot be separated based on morphology alone. Here we chronologically review the history of the Ustilago-Sporisorium-Macalpinomyces complex, argue for its resolution and suggest methods to accomplish a stable taxonomy. A combined molecular and morphological approach is required to identify synapomorphic characters that underpin a new classification. Ustilago, Sporisorium and Macalpinomyces require explicit re-description and new genera, based on monophyletic groups, are needed to accommodate taxa that no longer fit the emended descriptions. A resolved classification will end the taxonomic confusion that surrounds generic placement of these smut fungi.
    Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 12/2012; 29:55-62. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The anther smut fungi in the ustilaginomycetous genus Antherospora (Floromycetaceae, Urocystidales) that infect monocots, are currently placed in nine species. Against the background of the generally observed high host specificity in smut fungi, the broad host range reported for some of the species suggests much higher diversity. Antherospora vaillantii s. lato includes anther smuts on different Muscari species. In this study, specimens of anther smuts on Muscari armeniacum, M. botryoides, M. comosum, and M. tenuiflorum were analysed by rDNA sequences and morphology to determine whether they represented one polyphagous or several host specific species. The molecular phylogeny revealed three distinct lineages that were correlated with host plants, yet had only slight morphological differences. These lineages are assigned to three cryptic species: Antherospora hortensis sp. nov. on Muscari armeniacum, A. muscari-botryoidis comb. nov. (syn. Ustilago muscari-botryoidis) on M. botryoides, and A. vaillantii s. str. on M. comosum and M. tenuiflorum. All species on Muscari form a monophyletic group within Antherospora, and the phylogenetic relations within this group coincide well with the subgeneric classification of the respective host species. This indicates a common ancestry of Muscari anther smuts and co-evolution as a driver of their diversification.
    IMA Fungus. 01/2013; 4:5-19.
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, the monophyletic lineage of anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae includes 22 species classified in the genus Microbotryum. They are model organisms studied in many disciplines of fungal biology. A molecular phylogenetic approach was used to resolve species boundaries within the caryophyllaceous anther smuts, as species delimitation based solely on phenotypic characters was problematic. Several cryptic species were found amongst the anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae, although some morphologically distinct species were discernible, and most species were characterized by high host-specificity. In this study, anther smut specimens infecting Silene saxifraga were analysed using rDNA sequences (ITS and LSU) and morphology to resolve their specific status and to discuss their phylogenetic position within the lineage of caryophyllaceous anther smuts. The molecular phylogeny revealed that all specimens form a monophyletic lineage that is supported by the morphological trait of reticulate spores with tuberculate interspaces (observed in certain spores). This lineage cannot be attributed to any of the previously described species, and the anther smut on Silene saxifraga is described and illustrated here as a new species, Microbotryum silenes-saxifragae. This species clusters in a clade that includes Microbotryum species, which infect both closely and distantly related host plants growing in diverse ecological habitats. It appears possible that host shifts combined with changes to ecological host niches drove the evolution of Microbotryum species within this clade.
    IMA fungus. 07/2013; 4(1):29-40.


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May 27, 2014