Adolescent school failure predicts later depression among girls.
ABSTRACT Past research has found that social, academic, and behavioral problems are linked with depression during childhood and adolescence. The present study tests a longitudinal cascade model of adolescent problems predicting depression into adulthood, while additionally testing for gender differences.
Using prospective longitudinal analysis with a sample of 808 youth followed from age 10 to 21, we tested whether social problems, school failure, and delinquency in adolescence increased risk for a major depressive episode in emerging adulthood. Structural equation modeling was used to test for gender differences.
Both early conduct problems and adolescent school failures predisposed girls to depression in young adulthood. Among the boys, none of the problems conferred risk for depression.
This study highlights the mutual interplay between school failure and psychological functioning. It is suggested that school adaptation in adolescence be considered a mental health issue.
SourceAvailable from: Mara Westling Allodi
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ABSTRACT: There seems to be limited work addressing how depression is linked to elements of student functioning in the school setting other than academic achievement. This study investigated possible correlates of depressive symptoms with school engagement and disengagement. We examined four specific school variables (school motivation, intentions to quit, absence, and truancy) in a sample of 791 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age in a Norwegian upper secondary vocational school. The results indicated that symptoms of depression could be a risk factor for school disengagement, and particularly for intentions to quit school. However, as only moderate associations were found, it appears that many depressed students manage to keep up their school engagement. This applied to both genders. However, the findings underline the importance of developing effective methods to identify and help depressed students who do have difficulty keeping up school engagement. Implications for practice are suggested.Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 11/2013; 58(5):592-608. DOI:10.1080/00313831.2013.798835 · 0.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adolescent girls involved in juvenile justice are at elevated risk for suicide and depression into adulthood. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) reduces not only treatment targets (delinquent acts, criminal referral rates, and days in locked settings) among such girls, but also positively impacts homework completion, teenage pregnancy, and depressive symptoms through 2-year follow-up. Given Capaldi and Patterson’s failure model and Elder’s life-course theory, intervention-related improvements in these broad domains of behavior may alter longterm depression and suicide risk pathways. Thus, we tested MTFC effects on longterm trajectories of these problems. Method: 166 girls [mean (SD) age = 15.3 (1.2) years; 74% Caucasian] with a recent criminal referral who were mandated to out-of-home care were enrolled in one of two randomized trials of MTFC (n = 81) versus group care (GC; n = 85). We measured depressive symptoms (CESD) and suicidal ideation (Brief Symptom Inventory) repeatedly (9+ times) to adulthood [mean (SD) follow-up = 8.8 (2.9) years], and post-baseline suicide attempt history (Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale) in adulthood. We used hierarchical linear growth models that accounted for person-specific timelines of assessment to test intervention effects (intent-to-treat). Results: Relative to GC, decreases in suicidal ideation rates were marginally stronger in MTFC [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = .92 (.84–1.01), p < .10]; a significant interaction favored MTFC in Trial 2 [OR (CI) = .88 (.80–0.97), p < .01]. MTFC effects were partially mediated [indirect effect (SE) = -1.79 (.002), p < .10] by greater reductions in rates of depressive symptoms for MTFC relative to controls [β = -.86 , p <.05]. No significant MTFC effect on suicide attempt was detected; however, MTFC effects on depressive symptom and suicidal ideation, and the associations these symptoms (coefficients = .068, p < .05 and 10.87, p < .01, respectively) had with suicide attempt are consistent with a potentially protective effect. Conclusions: MTFC decreased depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking beyond the decreases attributable to time and another active intervention. Thus, MTFC has further impact on girls’ lives than originally anticipated. Understanding the mechanisms of these effects will inform prevention development; specifically: whether effects are wholly mediated by reductions in MTFC targets, and whether girls in need of specialized intervention are identifiable when initially referred. Additional intervention could further reduce depression and suicide risk. Doing so within the first 12 months post-intervention could avert problems in adolescence, the developmental period of greatest risk.Society for Prevention Research 21nd Annual Meeting 2015; 05/2013