Molecular modeling of a PAMAM-CGS21680 dendrimer bound to an A2A adenosine receptor homodimer. Bioorg Med Chem Lett

Molecular Recognition Section, Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters (Impact Factor: 2.42). 08/2008; 18(15):4312-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.06.087
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The theoretical possibility of bivalent binding of a dendrimer, covalently appended with multiple copies of a small ligand, to a homodimer of a G protein-coupled receptor was investigated with a molecular modeling approach. A molecular model was constructed of a third generation (G3) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer condensed with multiple copies of the potent A(2A) adenosine receptor agonist CGS21680. The dendrimer was bound to an A(2A) adenosine receptor homodimer. Two units of the nucleoside CGS21680 could occupy the A(2A) receptor homodimer simultaneously. The binding mode of CGS21680 moieties linked to the PAMAM dendrimer and docked to the A(2A) receptor was found to be similar to the binding mode of a monomeric CGS21680 ligand.

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Available from: Kenneth A. Jacobson, Sep 29, 2015
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    • ". The model was used in the following years for further docking analysis of AA 2A R ligands [112] [113] and for the building of an AA 2A R homodimer on the above mentioned AA 3 R dimer developed by Kim et al. [99]. The AA 2A R dimer was employed for the binding simulation of a poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer containing several copies of AA 2A R agonist [114]. Several modeling studies on AA 3 R were reported by Moro and co-workers. "
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    ABSTRACT: For a long time, there have been no experimentally determined structural data for any adenosine receptor (AR) and the only approach available for making structure/function correlations about these proteins has been homology modeling. While the early attempts to model these receptors followed the crystallization of bacteriorhodopsin, the cryomicroscopy studies of bovine and frog rhodopsin, and the modeling of a Cα-template for the TM helices in the rhodopsin family of GPCRs, the crystallization of bovine rhodopsin by Palczewski was of extreme importance as it first provided the crystal structure of an eukaryotic GPCR to be used as template for more realistic homology models. Since then, rhodopsin-based modeling became the routine approach to develop AR structural models that proved to be useful for interpretation of site-directed mutagenesis data and for molecular docking studies. The recently reported crystal structures of the adrenergic beta1 and beta2 receptors only partially confirmed the structural features showed by bovine rhodopsin, raising a question about which template would have been better for further modeling of ARs. Such question remained actually not-answered, due to the publication in late 2008 of the crystal structure of human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR). Since its publication, this structure has been used for ligands docking analysis and has provided a high similarity template for homology modeling of the other AR subtypes. Still, the AA2AR crystal structure allows to verify the hypotheses that were made on the basis of the previously reported homology modeling and molecular docking.
    Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 06/2010; 10(10):993-1018. DOI:10.2174/156802610791293145 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    • "If there is only one G protein associated with the GPCR dimer, the receptor that is not attached to the G protein could act as an anchor for the dendrimer ligand complex, allowing for a lowering of the EC50 and Ki app values. Previously molecular modeling work at the A2A AR has shown that one dendrimer with multiple ligands could bridge an AR dimer [32]. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism for the improvement of selectivity and potency of 17 in comparison to 7. "
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    ABSTRACT: An approach to use multivalent dendrimer carriers for delivery of nucleoside signaling molecules to their cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) was recently introduced. A known adenosine receptor (AR) agonist was conjugated to polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer carriers for delivery of the intact covalent conjugate to on the cell surface. Depending on the linking moiety, multivalent conjugates of the N6-chain elongated functionalized congener ADAC (N6-[4-[[[4-[[[(2-aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]anilino]carbonyl]methyl]phenyl]-adenosine) achieved unanticipated high selectivity in binding to the cytoprotective human A3 AR, a class A GPCR. The key to this selectivity of > 100-fold in both radioreceptor binding (Ki app = 2.4 nM) and functional assays (EC50 = 1.6 nM in inhibition of adenylate cyclase) was maintaining a free amino group (secondary) in an amide-linked chain. Attachment of neutral amide-linked chains or thiourea-containing chains preserved the moderate affinity and efficacy at the A1 AR subtype, but there was no selectivity for the A3 AR. Since residual amino groups on dendrimers are associated with cytotoxicity, the unreacted terminal positions of this A3 AR-selective G2.5 dendrimer were present as carboxylate groups, which had the further benefit of increasing water-solubility. The A3 AR selective G2.5 dendrimer was also visualized binding the membrane of cells expressing the A3 receptor but did not bind cells that did not express the receptor. This is the first example showing that it is feasible to modulate and even enhance the pharmacological profile of a ligand of a GPCR based on conjugation to a nanocarrier and the precise structure of the linking group, which was designed to interact with distal extracellular regions of the 7 transmembrane-spanning receptor. This ligand tool can now be used in pharmacological models of tissue rescue from ischemia and to probe the existence of A3 AR dimers.
    Journal of Nanobiotechnology 10/2008; 6(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1477-3155-6-12 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine acts as a cytoprotective modulator in response to stress to an organ or tissue. Although short-lived in the circulation, it can activate four subtypes of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors (ARs): A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3). The alkylxanthines caffeine and theophylline are the prototypical antagonists of ARs, and their stimulant actions occur primarily through this mechanism. For each of the four AR subtypes, selective agonists and antagonists have been introduced and used to develop new therapeutic drug concepts. ARs are notable among the GPCR family in the number and variety of agonist therapeutic candidates that have been proposed. The selective and potent synthetic AR agonists, which are typically much longer lasting in the body than adenosine, have potential therapeutic applications based on their anti-inflammatory (A(2A) and A(3)), cardioprotective (preconditioning by A(1) and A(3) and postconditioning by A(2B)), cerebroprotective (A(1) and A(3)), and antinociceptive (A(1)) properties. Potent and selective AR antagonists display therapeutic potential as kidney protective (A(1)), antifibrotic (A(2A)), neuroprotective (A(2A)), and antiglaucoma (A(3)) agents. AR agonists for cardiac imaging and positron-emitting AR antagonists are in development for diagnostic applications. Allosteric modulators of A(1) and A(3) ARs have been described. In addition to the use of selective agonists/antagonists as pharmacological tools, mouse strains in which an AR has been genetically deleted have aided in developing novel drug concepts based on the modulation of ARs.
    Handbook of experimental pharmacology 02/2009; 193(193):1-24. DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-89615-9_1
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