Mitochondria-specific transgenic overexpression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-associated cardiac dysfunction.
ABSTRACT Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits damage to mitochondria. Antioxidants provide protection from I/R-induced mitochondrial damage. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of mitochondria-specific overexpression of GPx4 (PHGPx) on cardiac function following I/R. Transgenic mice were created in which PHGPx was overexpressed solely in the mitochondrion (mPHGPx). MPHGPx and littermate control hearts were subjected to global no-flow ischemia (20 min) followed by reflow reperfusion (30, 60, and 90 min). Following I/R, mPHGPx hearts possessed significantly better rates of contraction, developed pressures, and peak-systolic pressures as compared to controls (P<0.05). No differences were observed in rates of relaxation or end-diastolic pressures. Lipid peroxidation was significantly lower in mitochondria from mPHGPx hearts as compared to controls, following I/R (P<0.05). Electron transport chain (ETC) complex I, III, and IV activities were significantly higher in mPHGPx hearts as compared to controls, following I/R (P<0.05). MPHGPx overexpression enhanced ETC complex I, III, and IV activities in subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM; P<0.05), and ETC complex I and III activities in interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM; P<0.05) following I/R. These results indicate that mitochondria-specific GPx4 overexpression protects cardiac contractile function and preserves ETC complex activities following I/R. These results provide further rationale for the use of mPHGPx as a therapeutic protectant.
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ABSTRACT: The Ca2+ ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) plays a dominant role in lowering cytoplasmic calcium levels during cardiac relaxation and reduction of its activity has been linked to delayed diastolic relaxation in hypothyroid and failing hearts. To determine the contractile alterations resulting from increased SERCA2 expression, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing a rat SERCA2 transgene. Characterization of a heterozygous transgenic mouse line (CJ5) showed that the amount of SERCA2 mRNA and protein increased 2. 6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, relative to control mice. Determination of the relative synthesis rate of SERCA2 protein showed an 82% increase. The mRNA levels of some of the other genes involved in calcium handling, such as the ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin, remained unchanged, but the mRNA levels of phospholamban and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger increased 1.4-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively. The increase in phospholamban or Na+/Ca2+ exchanger mRNAs did not, however, result in changes in protein levels. Functional analysis of calcium handling and contractile parameters in isolated cardiac myocytes indicated that the intracellular calcium decline (t1/2) and myocyte relengthening (t1/2) were accelerated by 23 and 22%, respectively. In addition, the rate of myocyte shortening was also significantly faster. In isolated papillary muscle from SERCA2 transgenic mice, the time to half maximum postrest potentiation was significantly shorter than in negative littermates. Furthermore, cardiac function measured in vivo, demonstrated significantly accelerated contraction and relaxation in SERCA2 transgenic mice that were further augmented in both groups with isoproterenol administration. Similar results were obtained for the contractile performance of myocytes isolated from a separate line (CJ2) of homozygous SERCA2 transgenic mice. Our findings suggest, for the first time, that increased SERCA2 expression is feasible in vivo and results in enhanced calcium transients, myocardial contractility, and relaxation that may have further therapeutic implications.Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/1997; 100(2):380-9. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is an antioxidant defense enzyme that plays an important role in detoxification of oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Because oxidative stress is proposed to play a causal role in aging, we compared the life spans of Gpx4 heterozygous knockout mice (Gpx4(+/-) mice) and wild-type mice (WT mice). To our surprise, the median life span of Gpx4(+/-) mice (1029 days) was significantly longer than that of WT mice (963 days) even though the expression of Gpx4 was reduced approximately 50% in all tissues of Gpx4(+/-) mice. Pathological analysis revealed that Gpx4(+/-) mice showed a delayed occurrence of fatal tumor lymphoma and a reduced severity of glomerulonephritis. Compared to WT mice, Gpx4(+/-) mice showed significantly increased sensitivity to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that lifelong reduction in Gpx4 increased life span and reduced/retarded age-related pathology most likely through alterations in sensitivity of tissues to apoptosis.The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 10/2007; 62(9):932-42. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) is synthesized as a long form (L-form; 23 kDa) and a short form (S-form; 20 kDa). The L-form contains a leader sequence that is required for transport to mitochondria, whereas the S-form lacks the leader sequence. A construct encoding the leader sequence of PHGPx tagged with green fluorescent protein was used to transfect RBL-2H3 cells, and the fusion protein was transported to mitochondria. The L-form of PHGPx was identified as the mitochondrial form of PHGPx and the S-form as the non-mitochondrial form of PHGPx since preferential enrichment of mitochondria for PHGPx was detected in M15 cells that overexpressed the L-form of PHGPx, whereas no similar enrichment was detected in L9 cells that overexpressed the S-form. Cell death caused by mitochondrial injury due to potassium cyanide (KCN) or rotenone (chemical hypoxia) was considerably suppressed in the M15 cells, whereas the L9 cells and control RBL-2H3 cells (S1 cells, transfected with the vector alone) succumbed to the cytotoxic effects of KCN. Flow cytometric analysis showed that mitochondrial PHGPx suppressed the generation of hydroperoxide, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the loss of plasma membrane integrity that are induced by KCN. Mitochondrial PHGPx might prevent changes in mitochondrial functions and cell death by reducing intracellular hydroperoxides. Mitochondrial PHGPx failed to protect M15 cells from mitochondrial injury by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, which directly reduces membrane potential without the generation of hydroperoxides. M15 cells were more resistant than L9 cells to cell death caused by direct damage to mitochondria and to extracellular oxidative stress. L9 cells were more resistant to tert-butylhydroperoxide than S1 cells, whereas resistance to t-butylhydroperoxide was even more pronounced in M15 cells than in L9 cells. These results suggest that mitochondria might be a target for intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress and that mitochondrial PHGPx, as distinct form non-mitochondrial PHGPx, might play a primary role in protecting cells from oxidative stress.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1999; 274(8):4924-33. · 4.65 Impact Factor