Mitochondria-specific transgenic overexpression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-associated cardiac dysfunction.
ABSTRACT Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits damage to mitochondria. Antioxidants provide protection from I/R-induced mitochondrial damage. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of mitochondria-specific overexpression of GPx4 (PHGPx) on cardiac function following I/R. Transgenic mice were created in which PHGPx was overexpressed solely in the mitochondrion (mPHGPx). MPHGPx and littermate control hearts were subjected to global no-flow ischemia (20 min) followed by reflow reperfusion (30, 60, and 90 min). Following I/R, mPHGPx hearts possessed significantly better rates of contraction, developed pressures, and peak-systolic pressures as compared to controls (P<0.05). No differences were observed in rates of relaxation or end-diastolic pressures. Lipid peroxidation was significantly lower in mitochondria from mPHGPx hearts as compared to controls, following I/R (P<0.05). Electron transport chain (ETC) complex I, III, and IV activities were significantly higher in mPHGPx hearts as compared to controls, following I/R (P<0.05). MPHGPx overexpression enhanced ETC complex I, III, and IV activities in subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM; P<0.05), and ETC complex I and III activities in interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM; P<0.05) following I/R. These results indicate that mitochondria-specific GPx4 overexpression protects cardiac contractile function and preserves ETC complex activities following I/R. These results provide further rationale for the use of mPHGPx as a therapeutic protectant.
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ABSTRACT: We have previously reported alterations in cardiolipin content and inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) proteomic make-up specifically in interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) in the type 1 diabetic heart; however, the mechanism underlying this alteration is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine how the cardiolipin biosynthetic pathway and cardiolipin-IMM protein interactions are impacted by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Male FVB mice were made diabetic by multiple low-dose streptozotocin injections and sacrificed five weeks post-diabetic onset. Messenger RNA was measured and cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations were isolated. Further mitochondrial functional experimentation included evaluating the protein expression of the enzymes directly responsible for cardiolipin biosynthesis, as well as ATP synthase activity. Interactions between cardiolipin and ATP synthase subunits were also examined. Western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease in cardiolipin synthase (CRLS) protein content in diabetic IFM, with a concomitant decrease in its activity. ATP synthase activity was also significantly decreased. We identified two novel direct interactions between two subunits of the ATP synthase F0 complex (ATP5F1 and ATP5H), both of which were significantly decreased in diabetic IFM. Overall, these results indicate that type 1 diabetes mellitus negatively impacts the cardiolipin biosynthetic pathway specifically at CRLS, contributing to decreased cardiolipin content and loss of interactions with key ATP synthase F0 complex constituents in the IFM.Life sciences 07/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Significant advances in maintaining health throughout life can be made through a clear understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that regulate aging. The Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging (OSTA) is likely the most well-studied mechanistic theory of aging and suggests that the rate of aging is controlled by accumulation of oxidative damage. To directly test the OSTA, aging has been measured in several lines of mice with genetic alteration of the expression of enzymatic antioxidants. Under its strictest interpretation, these studies do not support the OSTA, as modulation of antioxidant expression does not generally affect mouse lifespan. However, the incidence of many age-related diseases and pathologies is altered in these models suggesting that oxidative stress does significantly impact some aspects of the aging process. Further, oxidative stress may affect aging in disparate patterns among tissues or under different environmental conditions. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding aging in antioxidant mutant mice and offer several interpretations on their support of the OSTA.Free Radical Biology & Medicine 04/2014; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause of visual impairment. However, questions remain on the overall I/R mechanisms responsible for progressive damage to the retina. In this study, we used a mouse model of I/R and characterized the pathogenesis by analyzing temporal changes of retinal morphology and function associated with changes in retinal gene expression. Transient ischemia was induced in one eye of C57BL/6 mice by raising intraocular pressure to 120 mmHg for 60 min followed by retinal reperfusion by restoring normal pressure. At various time points post I/R, retinal changes were monitored by histological assessment with H&E staining and by SD-OCT scanning. Retinal function was also measured by scotopic ERG. Temporal changes in retinal gene expression were analyzed using cDNA microarrays and real-time RT-PCR. In addition, retinal ganglion cells and gliosis were observed by immunohistochemistry. H&E staining and SD-OCT scanning showed an initial increase followed by a significant reduction of retinal thickness in I/R eyes accompanied with cell loss compared to contralateral control eyes. The greatest reduction in thickness was in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL). Retinal detachment was observed at days 3 and 7 post- I/R injury. Scotopic ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes and implicit times were significantly impaired in I/R eyes compared to contralateral control eyes. Microarray data showed temporal changes in gene expression involving various gene clusters such as molecular chaperones and inflammation. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining confirmed Muller cell gliosis in the damaged retinas. The time-dependent changes in retinal morphology were significantly associated with functional impairment and altered retinal gene expression. We demonstrated that I/R-mediated morphological changes the retina closely associated with functional impairment as well as temporal changes in retinal gene expression. Our findings will provide further understanding of molecular pathogenesis associated with ischemic injury to the retina.Molecular Neurodegeneration 06/2013; 8(1):21. · 4.01 Impact Factor