A delayed and chronic treatment regimen with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT after cortical impact injury facilitates motor recovery and acquisition of spatial learning.
ABSTRACT An early (i.e., 15min) single systemic administration of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT enhances behavioral recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, acute administration of pharmacotherapies after TBI may be clinically challenging and thus the present study sought to investigate the potential efficacy of a delayed and chronic 8-OH-DPAT treatment regimen. Forty-eight isoflurane-anesthetized adult male rats received either a controlled cortical impact or sham injury and beginning 24h later were administered 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 or 0.5mg/kg) or saline vehicle (1.0mL/kg) intraperitoneally once daily until all behavioral assessments were completed. Neurobehavior was assessed by motor and cognitive tests on post-operative days 1-5 and 14-19, respectively. The lower dose of 8-OH-DPAT (0.1mg/kg) enhanced motor performance, acquisition of spatial learning, and memory retention vs. both the higher dose (0.5mg/kg) and vehicle treatment (p<0.05). These data replicate previous findings from our laboratory showing that 8-OH-DPAT improves neurobehavior after TBI, and extend those results by demonstrating that the benefits can be achieved even when treatment is withheld for 24h. A delayed and chronic treatment regimen may be more clinically feasible.
Article: S-nitrosoglutathione reduces oxidative injury and promotes mechanisms of neurorepair following traumatic brain injury in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces primary and secondary damage in both the endothelium and the brain parenchyma, collectively termed the neurovascular unit. While neurons die quickly by necrosis, a vicious cycle of secondary injury in endothelial cells exacerbates the initial injury in the neurovascular unit following TBI. In activated endothelial cells, excessive superoxide reacts with nitric oxide (NO) to form peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite has been implicated in blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage, altered metabolic function, and neurobehavioral impairment. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a nitrosylation-based signaling molecule, was reported not only to reduce brain levels of peroxynitrite and oxidative metabolites but also to improve neurological function in TBI, stroke, and spinal cord injury. Therefore, we investigated whether GSNO promotes the neurorepair process by reducing the levels of peroxynitrite and the degree of oxidative injury. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult male rats. GSNO or 3-Morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) (50 μg/kg body weight) was administered orally two hours following CCI. The same dose was repeated daily until endpoints. GSNO-treated (GSNO group) or SIN-1-treated (SIN-1 group) injured animals were compared with vehicle-treated injured animals (TBI group) and vehicle-treated sham-operated animals (Sham group) in terms of peroxynitrite, NO, glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation, blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage, edema, inflammation, tissue structure, axon/myelin integrity, and neurotrophic factors. SIN-1 treatment of TBI increased whereas GSNO treatment decreased peroxynitrite, lipid peroxides/aldehydes, BBB leakage, inflammation and edema in a short-term treatment (4-48 hours). GSNO also reduced brain infarctions and enhanced the levels of NO and GSH. In a long-term treatment (14 days), GSNO protected axonal integrity, maintained myelin levels, promoted synaptic plasticity, and enhanced the expression of neurotrophic factors. Our findings indicate the participation of peroxynitrite in the pathobiology of TBI. GSNO treatment of TBI not only reduces peroxynitrite but also protects the integrity of the neurovascular unit, indicating that GSNO blunts the deleterious effects of peroxynitrite. A long-term treatment of TBI with the same low dose of GSNO promotes synaptic plasticity and enhances the expression of neurotrophic factors. These results support that GSNO reduces the levels of oxidative metabolites, protects the neurovascular unit, and promotes neurorepair mechanisms in TBI.Journal of Neuroinflammation 01/2011; 8:78. · 3.83 Impact Factor