X-ray structure of papaya chitinase reveals the substrate binding mode of glycosyl hydrolase family 19 chitinases.
ABSTRACT The crystal structure of a chitinase from Carica papaya has been solved by the molecular replacement method and is reported to a resolution of 1.5 A. This enzyme belongs to family 19 of the glycosyl hydrolases. Crystals have been obtained in the presence of N-acetyl- d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in the crystallization solution and two well-defined GlcNAc molecules have been identified in the catalytic cleft of the enzyme, at subsites -2 and +1. These GlcNAc moieties bind to the protein via an extensive network of interactions which also involves many hydrogen bonds mediated by water molecules, underlying their role in the catalytic mechanism. A complex of the enzyme with a tetra-GlcNAc molecule has been elaborated, using the experimental interactions observed for the bound GlcNAc saccharides. This model allows to define four major substrate interacting regions in the enzyme, comprising residues located around the catalytic Glu67 (His66 and Thr69), the short segment E89-R90 containing the second catalytic residue Glu89, the region 120-124 (residues Ser120, Trp121, Tyr123, and Asn124), and the alpha-helical segment 198-202 (residues Ile198, Asn199, Gly201, and Leu202). Water molecules from the crystal structure were introduced during the modeling procedure, allowing to pinpoint several additional residues involved in ligand binding that were not previously reported in studies of poly-GlcNAc/family 19 chitinase complexes. This work underlines the role played by water-mediated hydrogen bonding in substrate binding as well as in the catalytic mechanism of the GH family 19 chitinases. Finally, a new sequence motif for family 19 chitinases has been identified between residues Tyr111 and Tyr125.
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ABSTRACT: Plants express chitinase and chitinase-like proteins (CLP) belonging to the glycosyl hydrolases of the GH18 and GH19 families, which exhibit varied functions. CLPs in the GH18 family have been structurally and functionally characterized; however, there are no structures available for any member of the GH19 family. In this study, two CLPs of the GH19 family from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis (HbCLP1 and HbCLP2) were cloned, expressed, and characterized. HbCLP1 was identical to the allergen Hev b 11.0101 previously described by others, while HbCLP2 was a novel isoform exhibiting an unusual half chitin-binding domain before the catalytic domain (CatD). Sequence alignments showed that in both proteins, the catalytic residues Glu117 and Glu147 in HbCLP1 and HbCLP2, respectively, were mutated to Ala, accounting for the lack of activity. Nonetheless, both CLPs bound chitin and chitotriose (GlcNAc)3 with high affinities, as evaluated with chitin-affinity chromatography and tryptophan fluorescence experiments. The chitin binding domains (CBD) also bound chitotriose with even higher affinities. The crystal structures of the HbCLP1-isolated domains were determined at high resolution. The analysis of the crystallographic models and docking experiments using (GlcNAc)6 oligosaccharides provide evidence of the residues involved in sugar binding. Endochitinase activity was restored in both proteins by mutating residues A117E (HbCLP1) and A147E (HbCLP2); the distance between the catalytic proton donor and the catalytic nucleophile in the in silico mutated residues was 9.5 Å, as occurs in inverting enzymes. HbCLP1 and HbCLP2 were highly thermostable and exhibited antifungal activity against Alternaria alternate, suggesting their participation in plant defense mechanisms.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEBS Journal 08/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension that seems to be important for their correct recognition by the vacuole sorting machinery. The 7 amino acids long C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant (CtVSD) of tobacco chitinase A is necessary and sufficient for the transport to the vacuole. This VSD shares no homology with other CtVSDs such as the phaseolin's tetrapeptide AFVY (AlaPheValTyr) and it is also sorted by different mechanisms. While a receptor for this signal has not yet been convincingly identified, the research using the chitinase CtVSD has been very informative, leading to the observation of phenomena otherwise difficult to observe such as the presence of separate vacuoles in differentiating cells and the existence of a Golgi-independent route to the vacuole. Thanks to these new insights in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-vacuole transport, GFPChi (Green Fluorescent Protein carrying the chitinase A CtVSD) and other markers based on chitinase signals will continue to help the investigation of vacuolar biogenesis in plants.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(6):11030-9. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tri-N-acetylchitotriosyl moranoline, (GlcNAc)3-M, was previously shown to strongly inhibit lysozyme (Ogata et al., J. Biol. Chem. 2013, 288, 6072-6082). The findings prompted us to examine the interaction of di-N-acetylchitobiosyl moranoline, (GlcNAc)2-M, with a family GH19 chitinase from moss, Bryum coronatum (BcChi19A). Thermal unfolding experiments using BcChi19A and the catalytic acid-deficient mutant (BcChi19A-E61A) revealed that the transition temperature (Tm) was elevated by 4.3 and 5.8 °C, respectively, upon the addition of (GlcNAc)2-M, while the chitin dimer, (GlcNAc)2, elevated Tm only by 1.0 and 1.4 °C, respectively. By means of isothermal titration calorimetry, binding free energy changes for the interactions of (GlcNAc)3 and (GlcNAc)2-M with BcChi19A-E61A were determined to be -5.2 and -6.6 kcal/mol, respectively, while (GlcNAc)2 was found to interact with BcChi19A-E61A with markedly lower affinity. NMR titration experiments using (15)N-labeled BcChi19A and BcChi19A-E61A revealed that both (GlcNAc)2 and (GlcNAc)2-M interact with the region surrounding the catalytic center of the enzyme and that the interaction of (GlcNAc)2-M is markedly stronger than that of (GlcNAc)2 for both enzymes. However, (GlcNAc)2-M was found to moderately inhibit the hydrolytic reaction of chitin oligosaccharides catalyzed by BcChi19A (IC50=130∼620 µM). A molecular dynamics simulation of BcChi19A in complex with (GlcNAc)2-M revealed that the complex is quite stable and the binding mode does not significantly change during the simulation. The moranoline moiety of (GlcNAc)2-M did not fit into the catalytic cleft (subsite -1) but was rather in contact with subsite +1. This situation may result in the moderate inhibition toward the BcChi19A-catalyzed hydrolysis.Glycobiology 06/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor