Isolation and characterization of immunostimulatory polysaccharide from an herb tea, Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino.
ABSTRACT Water-soluble polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum herb tea (PSGP) was isolated by hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation. The chemical components and preliminary immunomodulating activity of PSGP were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis showed that PSGP was a typical nonstarch heteropolysaccharide, with glucose being the main component monosaccharide (23.2%), followed by galactose (18.9%), arabinose (10.5%), rhamnose (7.7%), galacturonic acid (4.7%), xylose (3.9%), mannose (3.1%), and glucuronic acid (1.2%). PSGP could significantly stimulate peritoneal macrophages to release nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. This immunostimulating activity of PSGP was further demonstrated by its inhibition on the proliferation of human colon carcinoma HT-29 and SW-116 cells incubated with the supernatant of PSGP-stimulated macrophage culture. It is evident that PSGP is a very important ingredient responsible for at least in part the immunomodulating activity of G. pentaphyllum herb tea.
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ABSTRACT: Jiaogulan (Gynostemma Pentaphyllum) is age old herb in traditional Chinese herbology. It has been widely researched. It is true Rasayan (Rejuvenator / Antiaging) herb as it is immunomodulator, adaptogen, antioxidant, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, nootropic and hepatoprotective. The only one Rasayan therapeutic activity about which there was no research reference is aphrodisiac.
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ABSTRACT: The aqueous biphasic system (ABS) plays a key role in the separation of bioactive substances, and the establishment and application of a low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) ABS remains a challenge in high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). In this work, an ABS of low-molecular-weight PEG, namely PEG400-Na2SO4-H2O (20%-16%-64%, w/w/w), was developed on the basis of the phase diagram, and the phase forming time and ratio, and applied to HSCCC for the separation of polysaccharides. The crude polysaccharide extracted from Pericarpium granati (PGP) was successfully separated and three purified polysaccharides were obtained: PGP-1, with an average molecular weight of 13,210Da and composed of xylose (12.4%), ribose (10.1%), and glucose (77.5%); PGP-2, which is a homogeneous polysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 2584Da and consists of mannose; and PGP-3, with an average molecular weight of 2459Da and composed of ribose (51.4%), mannose (26.7%), and glucose (21.9%). This success shows that an ABS based on low-molecular-weight PEG could be applied to HSCCC separation technology.Journal of chromatography. A. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thinned-young apple (TYA) were investigated in the study. A water-soluble polysaccharide (TYAP) was obtained with hot water extraction, which was further purified by chromatography of Cellulose DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-150 to get three purified fractions of TYAP-1, TYAP-2 and TYAP-3. HPLC analysis showed that the three fractions were mainly composed of galactose and arabinose with the average molecular weights of 115kDa, 479kDa and 403kDa, respectively and the monosaccharide compositions of TYAP-2 and TYAP-3 were more complicated than that of TYAP-1. Moreover, TYAP fractions of three had no absorptions at 260nm and 280nm in the UV spectrum, indicating the absence of protein and nucleic acid. Their structure properties were further confirmed by FT-IR. In vitro antioxidant activities of three fractions were characterized by DPPH(•), HO(•), O2(•-) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power systems. The results indicated that TYAP-1, TYAP-2 and TYAP-3 possessed significant antioxidant effects in a concentration-dependant manner in the tested concentration range of 0.25-5.0mg/mL. Among the fractions tested, TYAP-3 showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of TYAP-1 and TYAP-2. All of these findings provide a scientific basis for the further use of polysaccharides from thinned-young apple.International journal of biological macromolecules. 08/2014;