Distinct subtypes of urinary bladder epithelial cells with inducible and non-inducible cytochrome P450 1A1.
ABSTRACT Cultured primary porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) represent an adequate and easy to handle in vitro system for studies of urothelial toxicity. PUBEC maintain in vivo-like metabolic activities and physiological functions. They express inducible cytochrome P4501A isoenzymes, which are of particular relevance, since they contribute to activation of bladder carcinogens. A possible drawback of PUBEC is their isolation from common domestic pigs that do not represent an inbred strain. In order to further establish PUBEC as a standard in vitro toxicity test system we analysed possible interindividual differences in CYP1A1 inducibility. Interestingly, we observed by flow cytometry that PUBEC obtained from individual pigs consist of two distinct subpopulations with inducible and non-inducible cells. A strong, concentration-dependent CYP1A1 induction was observed in the responsive subpopulation when incubated with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in a concentration range between 1 and 10 muM. In contrast, no CYP1A1 induction was obtained in the non-responsive subpopulation up to the highest tested concentrations of 100 muM. The fraction of responsive cells showed large interindividual differences ranging from 10 to 65% of the total cell number. For practical purposes it might be reasonable to analyse pools of PUBEC from five pigs which substantially reduce batch to batch variability. In conclusion, we have identified two functionally distinct subpopulations of urinary bladder epithelial cells. It will be interesting to study whether the CYP1A inducible subtype is more susceptible to bladder carcinogens.
- SourceAvailable from: Miki Nakajima[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are found in diesel exhaust and ambient air. NPAHs as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to have mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine-disruptive effects. In the present study, the inducibility of the human cytochrome P450-1 (CYP1) family by NPAHs was compared with those produced by their parent PAHs and some reductive metabolites, amino-PAHs. Furthermore, to investigate the differences in the inducibility of the CYP1 family in human tissues, various human tissue-derived cell lines, namely HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), ACHN (renal carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), LS-180 (colon carcinoma), HT-1197 (bladder carcinoma), HeLa (cervix of uterus adenocarcinoma), OMC-3 (ovarian carcinoma), and NEC14 (testis embryonal carcinoma), were treated with NPAHs, PAHs, or amino-PAHs. The mRNA levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 were determined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cell lines were classified into two groups: CYP1 inducible cell lines, comprising HepG2, MCF-7, LS-180, and OMC-3 cells, and CYP1 non-inducible cell lines, comprising ACHN, A549, HT-1197, HeLa, and NEC14 cells. In inducible cell lines, the induction profile of chemical specificity was similar for CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, although the extent of induction differed among the cell lines and for the CYP isoforms. Pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, 1-aminopyrene, 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrenes slightly induced CYP1 mRNAs, but 1,3-dinitropyrene produced a 6-fold induction of CYP1A1 mRNA in MCF-7 cells. 2-Nitrofluoranthene and 3-nitrofluoranthene exhibited stronger inducibility than fluoranthene in the inducible cell lines. 6-Nitrochrysene induced CYP1 mRNAs to the same extent or more potently than chrysene. The induction potencies of 6-nitrobenzo[ a]pyrene and 7-nitrobenz[ a]anthracene were weaker than those of their parents benzo[ a]pyrene and benz[ a]anthracene, respectively. This study demonstrated that NPAHs as well as PAHs induced human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 in a chemical-, CYP isoform-, and cell-specific manner. Furthermore, the cell-specific induction of the CYP1 family was not related to the expression levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator, or estrogen receptors alpha and beta.Archive für Toxikologie 07/2002; 76(5-6):287-98. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have used the minipig as a prospective animal model for human risk characterization to study primary biochemical alterations upon oral contaminant intake. The effects of three orally administered soils containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the expression pattern of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A1 in various organs have been analyzed. Dependent on the soil sample, subchronic daily oral PAH doses ranged from 0.38 to 1.90 mg PAH(EPA)/kg body weight. In all cases, soil administration lead to significant CYP1A1 induction in several organs of minipigs to a different extent, following the order liver approximately = duodenum >lung >kidney approximately = spleen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin- O-deethylase activities were elevated to 310, 1250 and 1780 compared with a background level of 200 pmol resorufin/mg protein per min. Induced duodenal activities appear to be even higher than in the liver, namely 405, 1280 and 2500 compared with a basal activity of 11 pmol resorufin/mg protein per min. CYP1A1 induction in several organs is clear evidence for successful contaminant mobilization and absorption in the duodenum and subsequent distribution of contaminant into diverse body compartments. As is shown in one case, impairment of CYP1A1 induction in the liver and thus breakdown of its PAH-metabolizing activity appears to have no effect on induced CYP1A1 levels in other organs. It appears important with respect to risk assessment that induction of CYP1A1 is particularly sensitive in the duodenum of minipigs and is achieved with soil doses which are in the range of amounts ingested by playing children due to hand-to-mouth activities. Induced duodenal CYP1A1 activities obtained in minipigs by oral exposure to PAH largely exceed maximal duodenal activities so far observed in rats. This is equally relevant for risk assessment and for selection of a suitable animal model that reflects effects of PAH exposure in humans.Archive für Toxikologie 06/2002; 76(5-6):326-34. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, a large number of groups studied the fate of human stem cells in livers of immunodeficient animals. However, the interpretation of the results is quite controversial. We transplanted 4 different types of human extrahepatic precursor cells (derived from cord blood, monocytes, bone marrow, and pancreas) into livers of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Human hepatocytes were used as positive controls. Tracking of the transplanted human cells could be achieved by in situ hybridization with alu probes. Cells with alu-positive nuclei stained positive for human albumin and glycogen. Both markers were negative before transplantation. However, cells with alu-positive nuclei did not show a hepatocyte-like morphology and did not express cytochrome P450 3A4, and this suggests that these cells represent a mixed cell type possibly resulting from partial transdifferentiation. Using antibodies specific for human albumin, we also observed a second human albumin-positive cell type that could be clearly distinguished from the previously described cells by its hepatocyte-like morphology. Surprisingly, these cells had a mouse and not a human nucleus which is explained by transdifferentiation of human cells. Although it has not yet been formally proven, we suggest horizontal gene transfer as a likely mechanism, especially because we observed small fragments of human nuclei in mouse cells that originated from deteriorating transplanted cells. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with all 4 human precursor cell types through different routes of administration with and without the induction of liver damage. CONCLUSION: We observed evidence not for transdifferentiation but instead for a complex situation including partial differentiation and possibly horizontal gene transfer.Hepatology 10/2007; 46(3):861-70. · 12.00 Impact Factor