Complications to thyroid surgery: results as reported in a database from a multicenter audit comprising 3,660 patients.
ABSTRACT During recent years, more radical surgery for thyroid disease, i.e., total instead of subtotal resection, has been evident. Results following this strategy on national levels are scarce.
From 2004 to 2006, 26 Scandinavian Departments registered 3,660 thyroid operations in a database. Risk factors for complications were analyzed with multiple logistic regression.
After thyroidectomy, re-bleeding occurred in 2.1% and was associated with older age (OR 1.04; p < 0.0001) and male gender (OR 1.90; p = 0.014). Postoperative infection occurred in 1.6% and associated with lymph node operation (OR 8.18; p < 0.0001). Postoperative unilateral paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve was diagnosed 3.9% and bilateral paresis in 0.2%. Unilateral paresis was associated with older age, intrathoracic goiter, thyreotoxicosis, and if routine laryngoscopy was practiced (OR 1.92; p = 0.0002). After 6 months, the incidence of nerve paresis was 0.97%. After bilateral thyroid surgery (n = 1,648), hypocalcaemia treated with vitamin D analogue occurred in 9.9% of the patients at the first follow-up and in 4.4% after 6 months.
Complications to thyroid surgery are not uncommon. The high frequency of hypocalcaemia treated with vitamin D after 6 months is a cause of concern.
SourceAvailable from: Víctor Soria-Aledo
Article: Vía clínica de tiroidectomía[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinical pathways are care plans applicable to patient care procedures that present variations in practice and a predictable clinical course. They are designed not as a substitute for clinical judgment, but rather as a means to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the procedures. This clinical pathway is the result of a collaborative work of the Sections of Endocrine Surgery and Quality Management of the Spanish Association of Surgeons. It attempts to provide a framework for standardizing the performance of thyroidectomy, the most frequently performed operation in endocrine surgery. Along with the usual documents of clinical pathways (temporary matrix, variance tracking and information sheets, assessment indicators and a satisfaction questionnaire) it includes a review of the scientific evidence around different aspects of pre, intra and postoperative management. Among others, antibiotic and antithrombotic prophylaxis, preoperative preparation in hyperthyroidism, intraoperative neuromonitoring and systems for obtaining hemostasis are included, along with management of postoperative hypocalcemia.Cirugía Española 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ciresp.2014.11.010 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute and chronic parathyroid insufficiency syndromes are the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Permanent hypoparathyroidism imposes an important medical burden on patient lifestyle due to the need for lifetime medication, regular visits and significant long-term costs. Its true prevalence has been underestimated due to lack of clear definitions, inadequate follow-up and conflicts of interest when reporting individual patient series. The aim of this review is to propose precise definitions for the different syndromes associated to parathyroid failure based on the follow-up and management of patients developing hypocalcemia (<8 mg/dL at 24 hours) after first-time total thyroidectomy for cancer or goiter at our unit. Short and long-term post-thyroidectomy parathyroid failure presents as three different metabolic syndromes: (I) postoperative hypocalcemia is defined as a s-Ca <8 mg/dL (<2 mmol/L) within 24 hours after surgery requiring calcium/vit D replacement therapy at the time of hospital discharge; (II) protracted hypoparathyroidism as a subnormal iPTH concentration (<13 pg/mL) and/or need for calcium/vit D replacement at 4-6 weeks; and (III) permanent hypoparathyroidism as a subnormal iPTH concentration (<13 pg/mL) and/or need for calcium/vit D replacement 1 year after total thyroidectomy. Each of these syndromes has its own pattern of recovery and should be approached with different therapeutic strategies.
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ABSTRACT: According to some authors, routine preoperative laryngoscopy should be the standard of care in all patients undergoing thyroid surgery. The rationale for this approach is (I) the risk that a patient has a preoperative vocal cord palsy (VCP) without symptoms; (II) the presence of VCP preoperatively is suggestive of invasive malignancy; (III) it is relevant for the use of intraoperative nerve monitoring; and (IV) surgical strategy may be better defined if a paralysed vocal cord is detected preoperatively. This is a review of studies of patients who underwent routine preoperative laryngoscopy to anticipate preoperative VCP and that evaluated related risk factors, including previous surgery, voice function complaints, and a diagnosis of malignancy. The estimated risk of sustaining preoperative VCF in the absence of these factors was determined. The relevant current guidelines from different professional bodies are also addressed. The level of evidence that supports routine preoperative laryngoscopy is weak. The risk of harboring preoperative VCP in the absence of previous neck or other risk-related surgery, advanced malignancy or voice symptoms is very low (0.5% of cases). Selective rather than routine use of preoperative laryngoscopy may be acceptable provided that the risk of undetected paralysis is as low as can be reasonably ascertained from the available literature.