In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Enhances Secondary Evaluation of Melanocytic Lesions

Sydney Melanoma Diagnostic Centre, Sydney Cancer Centre and Dermatology Department, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology (Impact Factor: 7.22). 01/2009; 129(1):131-8. DOI: 10.1038/jid.2008.193
Source: PubMed


We recently described an in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) method and our aim was to evaluate a possible additive value of this type of analysis in the management of melanocytic lesions. In two referral centers (Sydney and Modena), lesions (203 nevi and 123 melanomas (MMs) with a median Breslow thickness of 0.54 mm) were excised on the basis of clinical suspicion (history, dermoscopy examination, and/or digital monitoring). The RCM method was also trialed on a non-biopsied population of 100 lesions, which were clinically and dermoscopically diagnosed as benign nevi. All RCM and dermoscopy diagnoses were performed blinded to the histopathological diagnosis. Firstly, in the study population, a high interobserver agreement (on a subset of 90 lesions) was seen with the RCM method, which had superior specificity (68%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 61.1-74.3) for the diagnosis of MM compared with dermoscopy (32%, 95% CI: 25.9-38.7), while showing no difference in sensitivity (91%, 95% CI: 84.6-95.5, RCM; 88%, 95% CI: 80.7-92.6 dermoscopy). The two techniques had a weak correlation, resulting in only 2.4% of MMs being misclassified by both techniques. Diagnosis of light-colored lesions is improved by RCM (specificity 84%, 95% CI: 66.3-94.5) compared with dermoscopy (specificity 39%, 95% CI: 23.7-56.2). Secondly, the RCM method classified 100% of the non-biopsied control nevi population as benign.

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Available from: Stefania Seidenari, Oct 14, 2015
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    • "The other lesion displayed an irregularly broadened pigmented network (Figure 2A). When using RCM, the atypical pigment network corresponded to a meshwork pattern [22] with irregular and dishomogeneous dermal papillae. "
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    ABSTRACT: Histopathologic interpretation of dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) features of cutaneous melanoma was timidly carried out using perpendicular histologic sections, which does not mimic the same plane of the image achieved at both techniques (horizontal plane). The aim of this study was to describe the transverse histologic sections research technique and correlate main dermoscopic features characteristic of cutaneous melanoma (atypical network, irregular globules and pseudopods) with RCM and histopathology in perpendicular and transverse sections in order to offer a more precise interpretation of in vivo detectable features. Four melanomas and 2 nevi with different dermoscopic clues have been studied. Lesion areas that showed characteristic dermoscopic features were imaged by dermoscopy and confocal microscopy and directly correlated with histopathology in perpendicular and transverse sections. We presented the possibility to perform transverse sections as a new approach to understand RCM features. Atypical network showed different aspects in the 2 melanomas: in one case it was characterized by pleomorphic malignant melanocytes with tendency to form aggregates, whereas in the other elongated dendritic cells crowded around dermal papillae, some of them forming bridges that resembled the mitochondrial aspect at confocal and histopathology transversal sections. Pigment globules in melanomas and nevi differed for the presence of large atypical cells in the former, and pseudopods showed up as elongated nests protruded toward the periphery of the lesion. Transverse histologic research sections have a consistent dermoscopic and confocal correlate, and it may represent an help in confocal feature interpretation and an advance in improving melanoma diagnosis and knowledge of the biology of melanocytic lesions.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81205. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081205 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "(b) Dark focus with regular bright-pigmented cells around dark dermal papillae at the dermoepidermal junction. Diagnosis: lentiginous junctional nevus with mild dysplastic features (adapted from Guitera et al., 2009 "
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    ABSTRACT: The Journal of Investigative Dermatology publishes basic and clinical research in cutaneous biology and skin disease.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 12/2012; 132(12):e3. DOI:10.1038/jid.2012.429 · 7.22 Impact Factor
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    • "described in Guitera et al., 2009. 6 "
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    ABSTRACT: We describe two algorithms to diagnose basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and melanomas (MMs) using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). A total of 710 consecutive cutaneous lesions excised to exclude malignancy (216 MMs, 266 nevi, 119 BCCs, 67 pigmented facial macules, and 42 other skin tumors) were imaged by RCM. RCM features were correlated with pathology diagnosis to develop diagnostic algorithms. The diagnostic accuracy of the BCC algorithm defined on multivariate analysis of the training set (50%) and tested on the remaining cases was 100% sensitivity, 88.5% specificity. Positive features were polarized elongated features, telangiectasia and convoluted vessels, basaloid nodules, and epidermal shadowing corresponding to horizontal clefting. Negative features were non-visible papillae, disarrangement of the epidermal layer, and cerebriform nests. Multivariate discriminant analysis on the training set (excluding the BCCs) identified seven independently significant features for MM diagnosis. The diagnostic accuracy of the MM algorithm on the test set was 87.6% sensitivity, 70.8% specificity. The four invasive MMs that were misdiagnosed by RCM were all of nevoid subtype. RCM is a highly accurate non-invasive technique for BCC diagnosis. Good diagnostic accuracy was achieved also for MM diagnosis, although rare variants of melanocytic tumors may limit the strict application of the algorithm.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 06/2012; 132(10):2386-94. DOI:10.1038/jid.2012.172 · 7.22 Impact Factor
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