A long-surviving patient with lung pleomorphic carcinoma treated with postoperative carboplatin and paclitaxel combination chemotherapy
ABSTRACT We presented the case of a 46-year-old man with no medical or family history but with a history of smoking 3 packs of cigarettes per day for the past 25 years. He was admitted to our hospital due to hemoptysis. Chest computed tomography revealed a tumor of right upper lung and interstitial pneumonia in the surrounding lung parenchyma. He was operated upon and diagnosed with stage IIB pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung with invasion of the chest wall. He underwent three courses of postoperative carboplatin (CBDCA) (area under the curve 5 on day 1, every 3 weeks and paclitaxel(PTX) (200 mg/m(2); day 1, every 3 weeks) combination chemotherapy. No recurrence was observed for a period of 760 days after the operation. According to previous reports, lung pleomorphic carcinoma is aggressive and has a poor prognosis. Further, the significance of chemotherapy in the management of this disease has not been established. Postoperative combination chemotherapy of CBDCA and PTX may result in a good prognosis for this disease.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas (PSCs) are currently defined as poorly differentiated non-small-cell carcinomas containing a component with sarcoma or sarcoma-like (spindle and/or giant cell) features. They consist of 5 major histological variants, namely pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, and pulmonary blastoma. The segregation of PSCs into a distinct clinicopathologic entity seems justified on the basis of morphologic, behavioral, and genotypic/phenotypic attributes. As a group, PSCs generally run an aggressive clinical course and may cause major difficulties in the differential diagnosis with other primary and secondary malignancies of the lung. At present, PSCs are believed to represent a family of carcinomas "in transition," in which diverse pathways of clonal evolution account for histological differences of a common ancestor lesion. The sarcomatous or sarcomatoid component of these tumors is thought to derive from carcinoma cells during the progression of carcinogenesis through the activation of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition program leading to sarcomatous transformation or metaplasia (conversion paradigm). Conceivably, targeting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition program could become a valid therapeutic strategy for these life-threatening tumors, whose sensitivity to current medical manipulation is disappointing.International Journal of Surgical Pathology 02/2009; 18(2):103-20. DOI:10.1177/1066896908330049 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas (PSCs) are life-threatening tumors, an improvement in their recognition in small-sized tumor samples is clinically warranted. Preoperative biopsy samples and paired surgical specimens from 20 pleomorphic carcinomas, two pulmonary blastomas and one carcinosarcoma (training set) were studied for vimentin immunohistochemistry. A modified vimentin histologic score (M-VHS) was devised by multiplying three independently assessed parameters, i.e. the percentage of positive cells (from 0 to 5+, by quintiles), the intensity of immunostaining (low=1 vs. strong=2) and the distribution pattern within the cytoplasm (partial=1 vs. diffuse=2), so ranging from 0 to 20. Forty-eight consecutive and independent cases of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), including two additional cases of PSC, were used as control groups (validation set). No differences in M-VHS were found between biopsies and surgical specimens of PSC, thus confirming the occurrence of stable epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and hence the specific diagnosis of PSC. All types of PSC shared the same M-VHS. The M-VHS of 46 conventional NSCLC was by far lower (p<0.0001), whereas two additional cases of PSC showed the same results as the training set. Poorly differentiated NSCLC with marked pleomorphism but not stable EMT did not exhibit significantly increased M-VHS values. M-VHS helped in morphological analysis to render more definite diagnoses on small biopsies of PSC.Anticancer research 04/2012; 32(4):1463-73. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic alterations for targeting therapy are largely unexplored issues in pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC), a life-threatening tumor subset. EGFR, HER2, KRAS, p53, CTNNB1, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were assessed by direct sequencing, ALK, EGFR and HER2 gene status by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and ALK protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 20 pleomorphic carcinomas (PLC), two pulmonary blastomas (PB) and one carcinosarcoma (CS). Surgical specimens and, in case of positivity, the corresponding preoperative biopsies were analyzed. Furthermore, 51 consecutive metastatic lung adenocarcinomas (MELAD) were used as controls for FISH and IHC assays of ALK gene. While no rearrangements of ALK were detected in PSC, relevant amplification was identified 5/23 (22%) surgical specimens and paired biopsies (four PLC and one PB, two females and three males, four current and one never smoker, aged 30-83 years). Considering tumor heterogeneity, the percentage of ALK amplified tumor cells ranged from 11% to 43%, with a mean gene copy gain (GCG ± SD) of 6.9 ± 0.8 and no signal differences between the epithelial (6.5 ± 0.9) and the sarcoma-like components (6.8 ± 0.9) of tumors. In the remaining 18 non-amplified PSC, the relevant value was 2.9 ± 0.5 in 1-80% tumor cells (p<0.001). ALK amplification was closely associated with chromosome 7 (EGFR) or 17 (HER2) polysomy (p<0.001). Out of 51 MELAD, 10 were ALK-rearranged (p=0.026) and only one amplified (p=0.009). No amplified tumors, either PSC or MELAD, expressed the relevant protein by IHC, while the 10 ALK-rearranged MELAD were strongly positive. TP53, KRAS and CTNNB1 mutations accounted for 30%, 22%, and 4% of cases, respectively, with no significant relationship with ALK amplification. No mutations for EGFR, HER2, BRAF or PIK3CA gene were observed. ALK gene amplification is a nonrandom and clonally related event in a subset of PSC, but its biologic rationale deserves further investigation. KRAS mutation could represent a novel tool for therapy of such so deadly tumors with MEK inhibitors.Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 06/2012; 77(3):507-14. DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.05.093 · 3.96 Impact Factor