When Signaling Pathways Collide: Positive and Negative Regulation of Toll-like Receptor Signal Transduction

School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.
Immunity (Impact Factor: 19.75). 07/2008; 29(1):12-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2008.06.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is subjected to crosstalk from other signals, with a resulting positive or negative effect. There is complex crosstalk between the NLR family of immune-regulatory molecules and TLRs, and C-type lectin receptors such as Dectin-1 synergize with TLR2 via the tyrosine kinase Syk. Bruton's tyrosine kinase plays an important positive role in TLR signaling, whereas the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases is inhibitory. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 has been shown to positively regulate induction of interferon-beta, whereas SHP2 inhibits the kinase TBK1, limiting this response. K63-linked polyubiquination has also been shown to be critical for the initiation of TLR signaling. Finally, glucocorticoids affect TLR signaling by inducing the phosphatase MKP1 and inhibiting TBK1 activation. These recent findings emphasize the importance of considering TLR signaling in the context of other signaling pathways, as is likely to occur in vivo during infection and inflammation.

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