Anti-inflammatory effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA in rhinovirus-infected cultured airway epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) including DHA and EPA, are known to decrease inflammation by inhibiting arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism to eicosanoids, decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reducing immune cell function. The aim of this study was to determine if EPA and DHA reduced the release of inflammatory mediators from airway epithelial cells infected with rhinovirus (RV). Airway epithelial cells (Calu-3) were incubated with EPA, DHA and AA for 24 h, followed by rhinovirus infection for 48 h. IL-6, IL-8 and interferon-gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) released by cells were measured using ELISA. Viral replication was measured by serial titration assays. The fatty acid content of cells was analysed using GC. Cellular viability was determined by visual inspection of cells and lactate dehydrogenase release. DHA (400 microm) resulted in a significant 16% reduction in IL-6 release after RV-43 infection, 29% reduction in IL-6 release after RV-1B infection, 28% reduction in IP-10 release after RV-43 infection and 23 % reduction in IP-10 release after RV-1B infection. Cellular DHA content negatively correlated with IL-6 and IP-10 release. None of the fatty acids significantly modified rhinovirus replication. DHA supplementation resulted in increased cellular content of DHA at the cost of AA, which may explain the decreased inflammatory response of cells. EPA and AA did not change the release of inflammatory biomarkers significantly. It is concluded that DHA has a potential role in suppressing RV-induced airway inflammation.
Article: Rhinovirus and asthma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rhinoviruses (RVs) cause the majority of common colds, which often provoke wheezing in patients with asthma. The precise mechanisms responsible for the RV infection-induced exacerbations of bronchial asthma are still uncertain. However, several reports reveal airway hyperresponsiveness, increases in chemical mediators in airway secretions such as kinin and histamine, and airway inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma after RV infection. RV infection induces an accumulation of inflammatory cells in airway mucosa and submucosa including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. RV affects the barrier function of airway epithelial cells, and activates the airway epithelial cells and other cells in the lung to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, including various kinds of interleukins, GM-CSF and RANTES, and histamine. RV also stimulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and low-density lipoprotein receptors in the airway epithelium, receptors for major and minor RVs. On the other hand, RV infection is inhibited by treatment with soluble ICAM-1, and by reduction of ICAM-1 expression in the airway epithelial cells after treatment with erythromycin. Both soluble ICAM-1 and erythromycin were reported to reduce the frequency of common colds. Here, we review the pathogenesis and management of RV infection-induced exacerbation of bronchial asthma.Viral Immunology 02/2003; 16(2):99-109. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of dietary fish-oil fatty acids on the function of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of peripheral-blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes were determined in seven normal subjects who supplemented their usual diet for six weeks with daily doses of triglycerides containing 3.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g of docosahexaenoic acid. The diet increased the eicosapentaenoic acid content in neutrophils and monocytes more than sevenfold, without changing the quantities of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. When the neutrophils were activated, the release of [3H]arachidonic acid and its labeled metabolites was reduced by a mean of 37 per cent, and the maximum generation of three products of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway was reduced by more than 48 per cent. The ionophore-induced release of [3H]arachidonic acid and its labeled metabolites from monocytes in monolayers was reduced by a mean of 39 per cent, and the generation of leukotriene B4 by 58 per cent. The adherence of neutrophils to bovine endothelial-cell monolayers pretreated with leukotriene B4 was inhibited completely, and their average chemotactic response to leukotriene B4 was inhibited by 70 per cent, as compared with values determined before the diet was begun and six weeks after its discontinuation. We conclude that diets enriched with fish-oil-derived fatty acids may have antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in neutrophils and monocytes and inhibiting the leukotriene B4-mediated functions of neutrophils.New England Journal of Medicine 06/1985; 312(19):1217-24. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have a variety of anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects that may be of relevance to atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations of myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. The n-3 fatty acids that appear to be most potent in this respect are the long-chain polyunsaturates derived from marine oils, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and this review is restricted to these substances. A variety of biologic effects of EPA and DHA have been demonstrated from feeding studies with fish or fish oil supplements in humans and animals. These include effects on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, platelet function, endothelial and vascular function, blood pressure, cardiac excitability, measures of oxidative stress, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and immune function. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 fatty acids on manifestations of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke, whereas randomized, controlled, clinical feeding trials support this, particularly with respect to sudden cardiac death in patients with established disease. Clinically important anti-inflammatory effects in man are further suggested by trials demonstrating benefits of n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disorders. Given the evidence relating progression of atherosclerosis to chronic inflammation, the n-3 fatty acids may play an important role via modulation of the inflammatory processes.Current Atherosclerosis Reports 12/2004; 6(6):461-7. · 2.92 Impact Factor