Rat liver mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, hepatic carnitine, and malonyl-CoA: effect of starvation.
ABSTRACT Hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis increase during starvation. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) catalyses the rate-controlling step in the overall pathway and retains its control over beta-oxidation under fed, starved and diabetic conditions. To determine the factors contributing to the reported several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation in perfused livers, we measured the V(max) and K(m) values for palmitoyl-CoA and carnitine, the K(i) (and IC(50)) values for malonyl-CoA in isolated liver mitochondria as well as the hepatic malonyl-CoA and carnitine contents in control and 48 h starved rats. Since CPT-I is localized in the mitochondrial outer membrane and in contact sites, the kinetic properties of CPT-I also was determined in these submitochondrial structures. After 48 h starvation, there is: (a) a significant increase in K(i) and decrease in hepatic malonyl-CoA content; (b) a decreased K(m) for palmitoyl-CoA; and (c) increased catalytic activity (V(max)) and CPT-I protein abundance that is significantly greater in contact sites compared with outer membranes. Based on these changes the estimated increase in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is significantly less than that observed in perfused liver. This suggests that CPT-I is regulated in vivo by additional mechanism(s) lost during mitochondrial isolation or/and that mitochondrial oxidation of peroxisomal beta-oxidation products contribute to the increased ketogenesis by bypassing CPT-I. Furthermore, the greater increase in CPT-I protein in contact sites as compared to outer membranes emphasizes the significance of contact sites in hepatic fatty acid oxidation.
Article: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) modulators: a medicinal chemistry perspective on 35 years of research.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2011; 54(9):3109-52. · 4.80 Impact Factor