Sensori-motor and daily living skills of preschool children with autism spectrum disorders.
ABSTRACT Sensori-motor development and performance of daily living skills (DLS) remain little explored in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of sensori-motor skills on the performance of DLS in preschool children with ASD. Thirty-five children, 3-4 years of age, were recruited and assessed with a battery of diagnostic and clinical tests. Children showed atypical sensory responses, very poor motor and DLS. Sensory avoiding, an excessive reaction to sensory stimuli, and fine motor skills were highly correlated with DLS, even when cognitive performance was taken into account. Sensori-motor deficits have an impact on the autonomy of children with ASD and interventions should aim at improving and supporting the development of sensori-motor skills.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical anecdotes suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often show an atypical language profile in which expressive language exceeds receptive language competency. However, the few studies to directly explore this language profile have yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis examined 74 studies that reported the receptive and expressive language performances of children and youth with ASD. Four potential predictors (age, language domain, source of language data, method of ASD diagnosis) were separately analyzed for their contribution to the relative receptive and expressive language impairment in ASD. Contrary to popular belief, the current meta-analyses found no evidence that an expressive advantage is common in ASD. Overall, children and youth with ASD showed equally impaired receptive and expressive language skills, both falling roughly 1.5 SD below peers with typical development. No discrepancies were found in receptive and expressive language across developmental stages, cognitive abilities, vocabulary, global language skills, caregiver report measures, clinician-administered measures, mixed method measures, or method of ASD diagnosis. Although some individual children with ASD may have an expressive-better-than-receptive language profile, this profile is not common enough to be a useful marker of ASD.Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 01/2015; 9(1):202-222. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.10.008 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article discusses motor-life-skills in a sample (n = 1083) of 33 months (2.9-year-old) children in Norwegian early childhood education and care institutions (ECEC-institutions) and to compare the findings with the results from a similar British sample. The Early Years Movement Skills Checklist (EYMSC) (Chambers and Sugden 2006) was applied. EYMSC consists of four distinct categories; self-help skills, desk skills, general classroom skills and recreational/playground skills. The current study aims: (a) to compare the findings in the Norwegian sample with the sample of British children assessed by Chambers and Sugden (2006); and (b) to study possible gender differences in motor skills in this very young age group. Each child was assessed independently by two staff members familiar with the child in informal situations in kindergartens over a period of three months. Results: The Norwegian sample of (younger) children revealed relatively high motor competence compared to the slightly older British sample. Indications for cultural differences are possibly in line with stereotypical expectations of the Norwegian and British early childhood education systems. Gender-based differences in favour of girls were documented; supporting the assumption that gender differences in motor competency may be highly task-dependent.European Early Childhood Education Research Journal 12/2014; 24(1):1-21. DOI:10.1080/1350293X.2014.895560 · 0.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impairments in sensorimotor integration are reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Poor control of balance in challenging balance tasks is one suggested manifestation of these impairments, and is potentially related to ASD symptom severity. Reported balance and symptom severity relationships disregard age as a potential covariate, however, despite its involvement in balance development. We tested balance control during increasingly difficult balance conditions in children with ASD and typically developing peers, and investigated relationships between balance control and diagnostic/symptom severity metrics for participants with ASD, including age as a covariate. Balance deficits in ASD were exacerbated by stance alterations, but were not related to symptom severity when age was considered. These findings support impaired balance in ASD, especially in challenging conditions, but question a link between balance and symptom severity.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 11/2014; 45(5). DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2303-7 · 3.34 Impact Factor